Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Social networks Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Social networks - Essay Example In addition, nowadays almost all the people make use of the Internet daily for different purposes; some of the common uses of the internet are given below: No doubt, the Internet is one of the most well-liked and modern subjects among a variety of research and studies carried out to determine the effects of the Internet. Keeping in mind the organizations’ continuously increasing interest in the Internet, many studies regarding business to customers and Internet shopping have been conducted to discover the major aspects which can have influence over buying behaviors and decisions made by the customers on the Internet. Some of the useful aspects can include the psychographic and demographic attributes of consumers and the quality of products or services. As discussed above, the majority of business organizations are at the present extensively making use of the internet to reach global markets. In this scenario, they create a page on Facebook, twitter or any other similar web site (also known as the social network web site). Basically, a social network website (Such as Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn etc.) allows its users to make a profile using the services and tools provided by the web site, In this way they provide their personal information and interests uphold a list of friends and relatives and express their preferences for items like music, movies or books. On the other hand, the Web-based structure of social networks makes it ideal for use in a variety of forms that can take advantage of the users social and personal data. At the moment, these social networking sites (SNSs) have a great impact on the social life of many people, even more than millions of people that make use of these web sites directly. An organization can cre ate a page on any social network site such as Facebook. Hence, when a customer of that organization

Monday, October 28, 2019

Readiness of Kindergarten Teachers along K-12 Curriculum Essay Example for Free

Readiness of Kindergarten Teachers along K-12 Curriculum Essay One of the major reforms in our country’s educational system is Republic Act 10157, otherwise known as â€Å"The Kindergarten Education Law† or the K to12 (K+12). This Law made the Kindergarten compulsory and mandatory entry to basic education. This Law was initiated by the Aquino administration in order to address the perceived decreasing quality of education in the country, and to meet the international standard regarding the number of years in basic education. This program will require all incoming students to enroll into two more years of basic education. The K+12 System will include the Universal kindergarten, 6 years of elementary, 4 years of junior high school with an additional 2 years for senior high school. The program is implemented and formulated along with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and with the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). The current k-12 model that had been implemented in the country is an educational landscape for basic and secondary system patterned after the United States, Canada and some parts of Australia had done it. According to Patricia  Velasco’s article, the K- 12 Curriculum envisions â€Å"holistically developed learners with 21st century skills† (DepEd Primer, 2011). This further means that every student would have an understanding of the world around him and a passion for life-long learning while addressing every student’s basic learning needs: â€Å"learning to learn, the acquisition of numeracy, literacy, and scientific and technological knowledge applied to daily life† (p. 6). The main objective of the K to 12 curriculum is to achieve the DepEd’s goal of eradicating illiteracy rate in the country. â€Å"No child is left behind. † (source). Every Filipino has the right to receive quality education in order to become an asset in all dimensions, competent, efficient, effective and productive citizen leading to a decent and comfortable living. The most interesting part concerning the K to 12 program is on its practical assistance for the poor but skillful students. For instance, the student cannot afford to go to college; he is given an option or privilege to be employed not as a professional but on technical job because his skills acquired and developed during his Senior High School can be a guarantee for his  qualification for a vocational employment. Moreover, the program aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for graduates to be easily employed. Our country is the only country in Asia and among the countries in the world that has a 10 year pre- university program. The program also aims to meet the standards required for professionals who would want to work abroad. The system aims to fully enhance and develop the students in order for them to be well-prepared especially in emotional and cognitive aspects. Through this, graduates will be able to face the pressures of their future workplace. The K-12 aims the students to have a relevance or importance in the social and economic reality of life. The realm of their role as members of the country. Thus, this vision will be complete through an enhanced curriculum. (K-12 Kindergarten Curriculum Guide 2013) DepEd said that this is the right time to do something better for the field of education, having poor quality education. The DepEd released their stand along the reform. In stressing the need for the new system of basic education, President Benigno S. Aquino III said, â€Å"We need to add two years of our basic education. Those who can afford pay up to fourteen years  of schooling before university. Thus, their children are getting to the best universities and the best jobs after graduation. I want at least 12 years for our public school children to give them an even chance at succeeding. † (source) With the K-12 program, different arguments were formulated. Not all are in favor of the K+12 Education program. There are students complaining of the additional years and there are parents who are not in favor of the additional expenses. But it is an undeniable fact that additional years in the education system will really require more budgets not just from the government but from the  parents as well. Aside from this, students will need additional classrooms, school supplies and facilities. The program would need more qualified teachers as well. Teachers plays an important role 1 / 3 in the K-12 program because they are the ones who will teach the kindergarten pupils, especially the Pre – school teachers. Markovac amp; Rogulja, 2009, stated that the, early care main goal is to fulfill the Delors principles: â€Å"Learning to be, learning to do, learning to know and learning to live together and to live with others. † The early childhood is a time of rapid growth in all aspects of  children’s development fostered by their natural curiosity and adult support. Therefore, Preschool education is the foundation for a childs education. The skills and knowledge that a child develops in the preschool years will have a dramatic impact on a childs success when formal schooling begins as well as life success. Preschool education is important because it can give your child the edge in a competitive world and education climate. The first year of a child’s life is globally acknowledged to be the critical year for lifelong development because the pace of development during these years is  extremely rapid (National Council of Educational Research and Training, 2006 as cited in the K to 12 Curriculum Guide – Kindergarten). While children who do not receive the fundamentals during their preschool years will be taught the alphabet, counting, shapes and colors when they begin their formal education they will be behind the children who already possess that knowledge and skill set. The Pre – school teachers are supposed to have the courage and knowledge to teach the little ones. They will serve as the guide and the second mother at school. Children’s learning will greatly depend on the teachers strategies. Hence, kindergarten teachers should provide them with an engaging and creative curriculum that is developmentally – appropriate, age – appropriate and socio – cul;turally appropriate (DepEd K to 12 Curriculum guide for Kindergaten, 2012). Many new parents start hearing about K-12 since before their kids are born. However, they are not very clear about what K12 means, and why is necessary for them to start inform themselves about it as it will impact their kids’ future. What Is K12 Education? This term was coined to describe primary and secondary education. This includes kindergarten (K) all the way to the 12 grade. This extremely popular type of education is very common among several countries around the world. â€Å"K to 12† stands for kindergarten plus 12 years of elementary and secondary education. This educational system for basic and secondary education is widely adopted around the world. Early childhood education is intended to support and complement family upbringing and the main goal is to create good opportunities and conditions for each child’s well-being, create a stimulating environment for the child’s comprehensive development and learning while taking into account their age, gender and individual features. The role of early childhood care and education settings in improving children’s development has begun to be viewed with increasing importance. The recognition that centre-based childcare is associated with a host of positive developmental outcomes for children, such as increased cognitive abilities, language development, and emotional and social development (Kagan amp; Neuman, 1997; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Childcare Research Network [NICHD], 2000, 2002, 2008; NICHD amp; Duncan, 2003), has led to the introduction of a new policy in Ireland that provides every three-year-old child with access to a free preschool place for one year (Office of the Minister for Children and Youth Affairs [OMCYA], 2009). The importance of preschool learning is that first, parents must remember that preschool education is the foundation for your childs education. As Adams (2008) stressed that early childhood education is the key to building a strong foundation for a child’s educational success. The skills and knowledge (not to mention aptitude and attitude) that your child develops in the preschool years will have a dramatic impact on your childs success when formal  schooling begins as well as life success, as supported by the House Bill 5367 (2009), aimed to incorporate preschool education to basic education with the DepEd at the frontier of its implementation all over the country. This bill was in consonance with the state’s policy to provide equal opportunities for all children to avail themselves of free and compulsory preschool education that effectively promotes physical, social, intellectual, emotional simulations, let alone values formation to adequately prepare them for formal elementary schooling, second is that by actively  promoting and encouraging your childs preschool learning you will promote his or her self esteem as well. Help your child gain confidence by making learning fun and easy at this age and you will 2 / 3 help make your child an eager lifelong learner and the finally preschool education is important because it can give your child the edge in a competitive world and education climate. While children who do not receive the fundamentals during their preschool years will be taught the alphabet, counting, shapes and colors when they begin their formal education they will be behind the children  who already possess that knowledge and skill set. According to Anita Woolfolk Hoy and Megan Tschannen – Moran ,(2002), teachers’ sense of efficacy has been related to students outcomes such as achievement (Ross, 1992), motivation, (Midgley, Feldlaufer, amp; Eccles, 1998) and students’ own sense of efficacy ( Anderson, Greene, amp; Loewen, 1998). DepEd Secretary Armin Luistro stated that enhancing the competencies of pre-school teachers will have a great impact on the young learners. â€Å"We should ensure that teachers are ready for the challenge of making our young kids’ first school experience enjoyable  and giving them a positive experience that will motivate them to remain in school and complete their education. † This means that pre-school teachers are the implementers of the socially defined curriculum objectives. They help children to adapt to the society and to become its members, to develop interaction between children and different generations, and absorb the main behavioral habits and roles of the community. Also their task is to educate children to become unique subjects and persons as they truly are (Dewey, 1916; Ojakangas, 1998; Siljander, 2002) To become preschool teachers one must have the ability to deal with pupils ages 5. A preschool teacher needs to be proficient in helping children learn how to cooperate, providing fun learning activities suitable for preschoolers, keeping children safe, working as a team member with other teachers and interacting with parents. Preschool teachers need to be eager participants in childrens growth and development, as well as helping students understand how to use their natural curiosity to help make the appropriate developmental leaps in their skills and abilities. They are expected to create an atmosphere where risks can be taken and discoveries made while children remain safe. POWERED BY TCPDF (WWW. TCPDF. ORG).

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Psychology and Computers :: Psychological Technology Essays

Psychology and Computers For this paper I decided on the topic of how computers influence my chosen profession, and since I am a Psychology major this paper is going to be about Psychology and Computers. I plan to study School Psychology in particular. Where to begin? Computers affect so many aspects of Psychology. Let us start with the basic computer which is the calculator. We Psychology major’s use the calculator all the time, particularly in the class of test and measurements, are shown how to administer a test to students, adults, etc†¦ Then shown to calculate the different results and the different formulas we use and what the formulas mean. We also use the calculator, especially a calculator with graphing functions, to make graphs and to see what the math formula actually did. We can see what it measures and actually what the formula means. In another class called Senior research, we are using the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) which is a data analysis tool that is located in the Windows Excel Program, to see if the outcome of the ANOVA was statistically significant or if the outcome of the just had to do with interference of other variables. Also in the Excel Program, after the outcome of the ANOVA we use the Chart Wizard to make a graph to show the results of the ANOVA. Those are just some of the things that I use everyday which require a computer in Psychology, and this is just undergraduate work. I have not begun to tell all of the influences that computers have on Psychology. I plan on going to Graduate school after I graduate from Lake Superior State University with my Bachelors of Science in Psychology. In Graduate school I plan - 3 - to study School Psychology, but just to get into Graduate school I have to take the Graduate Record Exam (GRE). This is a Computer Based Test which measures a students’ verbal, quantitative, and analytical skills. By using the computer test you will be able to get your results right away after you take the test, unlike when I took the ACT (National College Admission Examination) to get into Lake Superior State. The ACT was a paper and pencil test which took two to three weeks to get my test results back.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Accounting theory Essay

Accounting theory and its application is very fundamental to students and professional in accountancy. It equips people in the accountancy profession with financial accounting theory and associated research. Relevance of this theory is that it provides accountants with knowledge to critically investigate and analyze contemporary accounting issues. Research enables students to have broad thinking of current accounting issues such as environmental aspects and social responsibility aspects. The study of popular culture lead to research concerning all the emerging issues in the Accounting profession. It brought about the question as to whether students or other stakeholders in the profession should engage the attention of people in the field of research. Deegan,C. (2009) in his book stated that there is little attention given to issues that impact to aspects of the accounting profession. Relevant issues for study in accounting and auditing concern accounting principles and standards, auditing ,professional behavior and general professional matters, such as scope of services, maintenance of quality control and strategies. Study of popular culture has provided researchers with the following arguments to justify implication of the Accounting profession. a. Accounting is a dynamic line of specialization where participants/accountants should be in a position to respond to changes in the business society and come up with revised accounting principles and standards. This will enhance understanding of the financial statements to stakeholders and society in general. b. Public accounting like other profession in United States should provide high level of motivation for evaluating what the actual events. It further anticipates any additional changes in future to improve and provide information on value creation by entity from different dimensions from profit. From research this has lead development international public sector accounting standards The study of popular culture will enable researchers to determine emerging issues such as, unexpected business failure, legal liability of an independent auditor and effectiveness and appropriateness of audit evidence gathered from the society. Besides, it will factor the complex nature of business transactions which normally affect the position of an independent auditor. Studying the popular culture also provides researchers with knowledge to evaluate the value added to the financial statements by various entities. This helps to determine effects of social and environmental accounting; highlights the role of culture in explaining international differences and disclosures in accounting. Popular culture enables society in understanding the reaction of capital markets to financial reporting. By understanding popular culture, it lead to research on fundamental issues such as corporate governance, social and environmental reporting which enables companies in their Annual Operating Plan set aside some amount to used in promoting things like sporting activities. Culture has exceptionally attracted voluntary reporting by allowing research on institutional theory, legitimacy theory, stakeholder’s theory and positive accounting theory. Nevertheless the study popular culture has significantly analyzed normative theories of accounting as well as development of accounting for price level changes. It involves critical appraisal of Historical cost accounting approach, general purchasing power approach and current cost accounting approach. Culture study highlights efforts towards international harmonization of accounting in terms of disclosure and reporting. Application of accounting research has influenced extension of financial reports such employment statements which analyzes the benefits which employees get from employment which in turn its cost to the employer. Earnings per share analyze both basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share in determining worthiness of company. Research of popular culture is very significance in understanding economic actions to a particular interest of groups within society and to the entire society; it involves extending the accountability of organization beyond the Traditional role providing financial account to the owners of the capital, in particular, the shareholders. Such an extension is predicated upon the assumption that companies do have wider responsibilities than simply to make money for their respective shareholders.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Cook Chill

1. 0 INTRODUCTION Cook-chill and cook-freeze food productions are ways of producing foods that have been employed by many different organizations determining from the types of foods and services that the particular organization offers. These types of cooking methods work hand-in-hand with the kitchen designs. Kitchen design refers to the layout of kitchen equipment and positions of the working sections to produce foods that meet the needs of customers and thereby reaching the goals of the establishment. 2. 0 A KITCHENA kitchen is described as a building or a room in a building that has been specialized for cooking purposes only. Different establishments have their own types of kitchens with different designs that serve different purposes. Some kitchens are designed special for catering customers on transit such as Fast Food restaurants but some kitchens has to cater for a specific group of people using a specific type of service, thereby it has to have the right number of employees w ho will do the job and enough equipment to save time as well as energy. 3. 0 KITCHEN PLANSThere are different types of kitchen plans that have a specific purpose of operations. If a kitchen is designed for a particular way of production, it has also specific type of equipment available in that kitchen plan. There are different types of kitchen plan some of them are discussed below. 3. 1 Corridor kitchen A corridor type of kitchen, the appliances, cabinets and counter space are arranged on two facing walls. If the room is not too long, this can be an efficient kitchen. However, if both ends of the kitchen have doors, traffic through may create confusion. 3. 2 U-shaped kitchenThis type of kitchen is usually considered to be the best type of a kitchen which has the best work triangle because of its convenient arrangement and short walking space between appliances. It has a determined floor space and accommodates a determined number of workers. 3. 3 L-shaped kitchen This type of a kitch en creates an easy-to-use work triangle. If the kitchen space is large enough, an eating center can be included. This is the situation whereby customers serve themselves. 3. 4Center type of kitchen This type of kitchen is the most common type of kitchens that most establishments have employed.The working area is on the center as the name suggests but does not provide enough space. Figure 3. 4. 1 3. 5 Island type of kitchen All the necessary equipment in the kitchen is placed back to back in the middle of the working area. This type of setting requires an adequate space to allow an easy flow and enough space between the equipment for easy cleaning and to avoid creating dark areas that introduces insects. 4. 0 WORK CENTERS A work center is an area that focuses on a particular type of work activity such as preparation or cooking.Includes appliances and work space and that the necessary equipment is stored within for easy reach as depicted in figure 4. 0. Figure 4. 0. A chef preparing a meal from a working center. 4. 1 Refrigerator-freezer center * The refrigerator and the freezer have space next to them to use when loading or unloading foods. * A storage space is needed for items used to package food for refrigeration. * Storage space for items used when serving refrigerated or frozen foods. 4. 2 Range center(gas/ electric range) * Cabinet storage for foods used at this center. Storage space for pots, pans, cooking tools such as ladles, wooden spoons and pot handlers. 4. 3 Sink or cleanup center * Appliances such as dish washers and food waste disposers are found in these centers * Adequate space for stacking dishes 4. 4 Mixing center * Can be between two centers * Has several electrical outlets * Storage space for measuring, mixing and baking equipment and all the necessary ingredients 5. 0 TYPES OF KITCHEN ORGANISATIONS 5. 1 Conventional kitchen * They are suitable for small establishments They have fixed menus and banquets operating on rational basis * All dep artments are grouped together in blocks * Preparation and finishing are done in the same area 5. 2 Combined preparation and finishing kitchen * They are suitable for medium sized hotels or establishments * Preparation and finishing are done in the same section * In principle, preparation and finishing are totally or partially separated depending on the establishment 5. 3 Separate preparation and finishing kitchen( Satellite kitchen) * They are suitable for large establishments Preparation and finishing are done in separate sections; mis-en-place and the other one for finishing * Each section consists of one housing all the equipment for preparation of the dishes * Usually, they have no ranges, frying pans or steamed jacketed pots. Instead, they have grills, microwaves and Bain Marie. * 5. 4 Convenience food kitchen * a system of interest to the establishment that has no preparation kitchen but purchases only convenience foods * deals with the finishing of foods only and mostly canne d foods * require refrigerated and dry storage areasIn selection of these types of kitchen, consideration should be given * numbers of meals to prepared at each meal period * types of services * customer prices * system for serving meals * serving times for hot and cold meals 6. 0 FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE DESIGN OF A KITCHEN 1. Service requirement: Management should be well aware of a food service objectives before planning its kitchen, type of menu and target numbers, etc usually determine the type of equipment to be in the kitchen 2. Space availability: One that maximizes space wage or that ensures efficient usage of space. 3.Amount of capital expenditure: Have an accurate idea of spending available since finances will often determine the overall design and acceptability. 4. Type of equipment available: Space provision for ventilation and power supply of the kitchen. 5. Use of convenience foods: Design of a fast food kitchen using ready-made foods will be different from that of a kitchen serving †¦. la carte menu. 7. 0 FOOD HYGIENE A number of factors may affect the quality and wholesomeness of food. * The premises, equipment and conditions in which it is stored * The care taken by food handlers to avoid contamination from other foods.Large scale handling of food by staff not trained or conscious of hygiene requirements is a major source of infection. In such circumstances, cross-contamination can easily occur. * Allocation of the kitchen * The number of people passing by the kitchen * Contact of cooked food with raw foods or utensils and surfaces contaminated by raw foods is likely to become infected * Segmentation of cooking sections may contaminate high risk foods such as cooked poultry and meat (pies, soups, stock) milk, creams, custards, shellfish, eggs, cooked rice and dairy products. 8. COOK-CHILL FOOD PRODUCTION Cook-chill, according to John Campbell,David Fasket and Victor Ceserani (2008), is a catering system based on the normal preparation and cooking of food followed by rapid chilling storage in controlled low-temperature conditions above freezing point, 0–3? , and subsequently reheating immediately before consumption. The chilled food is regenerated in finishing kitchens, which require low capital investment and minimum staff. Almost any food can be cook-chilled provided that the correct methods are used during the preparation. 8. 1 THE COOK-CHILL PROCESS The food should be cooked sufficiently to ensure destruction of any pathogenic microorganisms. The process must begin as soon as possible after completion of the cooking and portioning processes, within 30 minutes of leaving the cooker. * The food should be to 3? within a period of 90 minutes. Most pathogenic organisms will not grow below 7, while a temperature below 3? is required to reduce growth of spoilageand to achieve the required storage life. However, slow growth of spoilageorganisms does take place at these temperatures and for this reason storage l ife cannotbe greater than five days. The food should be stored at a temperature of 0–3? and should be distributed under such controlled conditions that any rise intemperature of the food during distribution is kept to a minimum. For both safety and palatability the reheating (regeneration) of the food should followimmediately upon the removal of the food from chilled conditions and should raise thetemperature to a level of at least 70?. The food should be consumed as soon as possible and not more than two hours afterreheating. Food not intended for reheating should be consumed as soon as convenientand within two hours of removal from storage.It is essential that unconsumed reheatedfood is discarded. 9. 0 COOK-FREEZE FOOD PRODUCTION This type of food production is similar with the cook-chill system of production. The only difference is temperature conditions that the foods are placed in. 10. 0 COOK-CHILL AND COOK-FREEZE FOOD PRODUCTION RELATING TO THE KITCHEN DESIGN A type of a kitchen determines what type of food production system to be employed. 1. A conventional type of kitchen produces fast foods therefore, it can adopt the cook-chill production system.It would be easy to reheat the foods in the microwave than to start preparing; beef stew takes long to prepare and for a fast food restaurant, time matters most. 2. L-shaped kitchen creates a large working area which also creates room for the cook-chill or cook-freeze equipment since the equipment is big and requires a larger space e. g the blast chillers and deep freezers as in figure 10. 0. Figure 3. 0. A chef preparing a meal using a Blast chiller. 3. A u-shaped kitchen, though considered to be the best, would not be the best type of kitchen for a cook-freeze type of production.The equipment might need one corner of the room which cannot be possible because the corners might be occupied with other equipment. 4. A corridor kitchen might also not be suitable for cook-chill systems because the equipmen t is placed in the sides of the kitchen which creates much space for an easy work flow but little storage and working areas. 11. 0 Conclusion Cook-chill and cook-freeze are food production methods that are commonly used nowadays to produce food in most of the hospitality establishments worldwide.The cook-chilling and cook-freezing areas in the kitchen are compatible parts of the kitchen plan and design, therefore, for these areas to exists in a kitchen it has to be planned at first when building the kitchen. BIBLIOGRAPHY Fellows, PJ(2000). Food Processing Technology: Principles And Practice 2nd ed. Woodhead: Cambridge Food Standards Agency(2002). The Composition Of Foods,6th ed. MacCance: Cambridge Kowtaluk, H. & Kopan, OA. (1990). Food For Today(4th ed). McGraw-Hill:New York

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Guggenheim Bilbao essays

Guggenheim Bilbao essays Phillip Johnson, the dean of American architects called Guggenheim Museum Bilbao the greatest building of our century. Designed by Frank O. Gehry, this sprawling, organic plan resembles a living organism, like some gigantic metallic flower growing along the bank of a river. This unique Museum built on a 32,500 square meter site in the center of Bilbao represents an amazing construction feat. On one side it runs down to the waterside of the Nervin River, 16 meters below the level of the rest of the city of Bilbao. One end is pierced through by the huge Puente de La Salve, one of the main access routes into the city. It is a truly divine architectural achievement of the century. Concepts of architecture for arts sake, todays museum buildings are not only storage for art pieces, but the building itself is an element of art. The choice of Bilbao as the venue for one of the Guggenheim European centers is best understood in the context of the initiatives implemented by the Basque authorities as a contribution to the process of revitalizing the Basque Country's recession-plagued economic structure. These initiatives were also seen as a means of increasing the chances of the city's metropolitan area becoming the major reference point for European regions on the Atlantic seaboard The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is one of the most important ingredients in the plan to redevelop the city of Bilbao. The plan, involving a number of major projects conceived by some of the world's most prestigious architects, includes the work now in progress to increase operational capacity at the city's port, the restoring of the city's airport, a mission entrusted to Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, a new Conference and Performing Arts Center, designed by Federico Soriano, the construction of a metropolitan railway - much of it underground - designed by Sir Norman Foster, and a new footbridge crossing the river a...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Ethanol essays

Ethanol essays Ethanol Powered Vehicle Design Proposal Executive Summary: Many vehicles have already been manufactured and sold to run using ethanol fuel or E85. The problem facing many interested consumers in purchasing one of these vehicles is the lack of purchasing ability to refuel their vehicles. According to the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition, there is only one station set up to dispense ethanol fuel in the state of Indiana. If there were more refueling stations that would be willing to sell E85, there would be a larger population using these types of vehicles. In order for this to take place, however, the fuel companies must be willing to convert some of their stations to sell E85 fuel. The Indiana Department of Commerce, Energy Policy Division is making available grants of up to $30,000 each to encourage the development of an improved alternative fuels infrastructure in Indiana. The lack of refueling infrastructure is currently a major obstacle in bringing about greater acceptance and use of alternative fuel vehicles. The development of infrastructure is the most pressing current need for compliance with the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and for the development of stronger clean cities organizations. Eligible projects will be those that involve the installation and use of new alternative fuel vehicle refueling sites within the state of Indiana. Grant funds may be used for the purchase of fuel storage, dispensing, metering equipment, the costs of installing such equipment, and safety equipment necessary under applicable state, federal, and local regulations. In order for local refueling stations to receive this grant, we propose that stations first give us a grant in the amount of $10,000 dollars to support a team to enter into the Argonne National Labs Tour De Sol race. This race is held in hopes of identifying new automotive technologies that are cleaner, more efficient, and economical. Our hope is that in entering the ra...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Michelangelo Buonarroti Biography and Artwork

Michelangelo Buonarroti Biography and Artwork The Basics: Michelangelo Buonarroti was arguably the most famous artist of the High to Late Italian Renaissance, and inarguably one of the greatest artists of all time along with fellow Renaissance men Leonardo DiVinci and Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio). He considered himself a sculptor, primarily, but is equally well known for the paintings he was induced (grudgingly) to create. He was also an architect and an amateur poet. Early Life: Michelangelo was born on March 6, 1475, in Caprese (near Florence) in Tuscany. He was motherless by the age of six and fought long and hard with his father for permission to apprentice as an artist. At the age of 12, he began studying under Domenico Ghirlandajo, who was the most fashionable painter in Florence at the time. Fashionable, but extremely jealous of Michelangelos emerging talent. Ghirlandajo passed the lad off to be apprenticed to a sculptor named Bertoldo di Giovanni. Here Michelangelo found the work that became his true passion. His sculpture came to the attention of the most powerful family in Florence, the Medici, and he gained their patronage. His Art: Michelangelos output was, quite simply, stunning, in quality, quantity, and scale. His most famous statues include the 18-foot David (1501-1504) and the (1499), which were both completed before he turned 30. His other sculpture pieces included elaborately decorated tombs. He did not consider himself a painter, and (justifiably) complained throughout four straight years of the work, but Michelangelo created one of the greatest masterpieces of all time on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (1508-1512). Additionally, he painted The Last Judgement (1534-1541) on the altar wall of the same chapel many years later. Both frescoes helped Michelangelo earn the nickname Il Divino or The Divine One. As an old man, he was tapped by the Pope to complete the half-finished St. Peters Basilica in the Vatican. Not all of the plans he drew were utilized but, after his death, architects built the dome still in use today. His poetry was very personal and not as grand as his other works, yet is of great value to those who wish to know Michelangelo. Accounts of his life seem to portray Michelangelo as a prickly-tempered, mistrusting and lonely man, lacking in both interpersonal skills and confidence in his physical appearance. Perhaps that is why he created works of such heartbreaking beauty and heroism that they are still held in awe these many centuries later. Michelangelo died in Rome on February 18, 1564, at the age of 88. Famous Quote: Genius is eternal patience.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

New Perspectives in Entrepreneurship - Avril Kennedy and Harlequin Essay

New Perspectives in Entrepreneurship - Avril Kennedy and Harlequin - Essay Example Mary Jesselyn Co (2006, p. 45-46) lists several characteristics of a successful entrepreneur, including a passion for business, internal locus of control, risk-taking, commitment, dedication, perseverance, a need for achievement, initiative, feedback/advice-seeking, creativity and innovation. Zeelie et al. (1998, p. 12) add, "In order to achieve entrepreneurial success, personal, internal development and the development of good interpersonal skills are essential." Steven Brandts (1996, ch. 4 p. 4) list includes applicable business or technical experience, verifiable integrity, the ability to communicate ideas, and a propensity towards team work. Evan Douglas (eds Carsrud & Braanback 2009, p. 19) wrote that "successful entrepreneurship is likely to provide societal benefits as well." Finally, Chris Steyaert and Daniel Hjorth (2004, p. 269) wrote that entrepreneurs emphasized the importance of alertness and timeliness. "Timeliness in taking action was critical because [the entrepreneur s] goal was to grab the (quickly) passing opportunity. Opportune times, they stressed, do not last long in fast-changing environments." Avril Kennedy had exhibited many of these characteristics from the time she started Harlequin. Applicable business and technical experience. Avril had experience selling as a demonstrator of products; therefore, she was exposed to a retail environment. She knew about the potential of making a profit at Barras because her ex-husband had rented a stall there in the past. Alertness and timeliness. As the business grew, Avril stayed abreast of news that would offer opportunities to expand the business, particularly with regards to the availability of more desirable real estate. Risk-taking. Co (2006, p. 46) noted that entrepreneurs "take calculated risks, not high or wild risks," and Avril built her business slowly and expanded purposefully. In an interview with Carmen Nobel (2011, n. p.), Tom Eisenmann, a professor in the Entrepreneurial Management Unit at Harvard Business School, said, "Lean startups don't try to scale up the business until they have product-market fit [PMF], a  magical event — more easily recognized in retrospect than in the moment — when they finally have a solution that matches the problem.  

Friday, October 18, 2019

Foundations of Microeconomics Consumers and Firms Essay

Foundations of Microeconomics Consumers and Firms - Essay Example The output of the plant is 300,000 units per day at a cost of $30 per unit. The total revenue per day is 300,000 * $30 = $9,000,000. According to Parkin (2005), "A firm shuts down if the price falls below the minimum of average variable cost. The shutdown point is the output and price at which the firm just covers its total variable cost" (p.244). As we can see, the total revenue exceeds the variable costs and it would be recommended to continue to produce. If sales continue to stagnate and drop, there will come a point at which shutdown will be advisable. When sales have reduced to the 250,000 unit level, it will be necessary to begin layoffs. The revenue at that point would be 250,000 * $30 = $7,500,000 and equal to the variable cost. To avoid shutdown, labor costs would need to be reduced. The relationship between a change in price and the change in demand is known as elasticity. If a change in price results in no change in demand, this is known as perfectly inelastic demand (Parkin 2005 p. 84). This would be seen in the market for necessities such as electricity or heating fuel. If the ratio of price change is equal to the change in demand, this is known as unit elastic demand (Parkin 2005 p.84). With some items, such as food, an increase in price only results in a small change in demand. Consumers will cut back, but not eliminate, the product. This is known as inelastic demand (Parkin 2005 p.84). ... The demand change is equal to 10 / 30 * 100 = 33.33%. The change in demand has a larger percentage decrease than the percentage of increase in price and is an elastic demand. Part Three As a policy maker concerned with correcting the effects of gases and particulates emitted by and local power plant, I would first look to command and control regulations. This is the simplest approach for the government and would transfer the cost of reducing the emissions to the consumer and the firm. While this may be the simplest, it may not be acceptable to environmentalists or the parties burdened with the cost. It is also difficult to enforce. Vouchers are another method that should be considered. However, since the problem is a local power plant, the tactic might be ineffective. The firm could purchase vouchers and still continue to discharge pollutants. Charging an emissions fee for the amount discharged may be viewed as a penalty or fine for polluting and would be a cost passed on to the consumers. Taxing the pollutants would have the advantage of providing an economic incentive for compliance. These taxes, known as Pigovian taxes, can be useful in getting a firm to act as if they are bearing the total cost of the externalities (Parkin 2005 p.348). The tax method seems to be the most efficient. Under the tax method, the tax rate is set at the cost of the externalities. The pollutants fall to the point that the cost to produce plus the tax reaches market equilibrium. Polluting above that point raises the cost beyond the marketable price. This would efficiently control the discharge and put the money in the hands of the government to be used to cover the external costs or tax reduction. References Parkin, M. (2005). Microeconomics (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson

Free Trade Agreements Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Free Trade Agreements - Essay Example The Agreement, which entered into force on January 1, 2004, is the United States' first FTA with an Asian nation and the first FTA signed by President Bush. The U.S.-Singapore FTA expands U.S. market access in goods, services, investment, government procurement, intellectual property, and also promotes labor rights and the environment. This FTA further develops an already well-built commercial relationship with American's 12th largest trading partner This FTA will serve as the foundation for other possible FTAs in Southeast Asia. Singapore hereby saves more than $115 million annually in tariff cuts since the United States is Singapore's second-largest export market. It also generates thousands of jobs in the service, support and manufacturing industries and induces more US companies and their investments to come to Singapore. It also has an economic offshoot to the other region besides Singapore as the US would be looking for similar deals with the rest of the Asian countries. It also helps Singapore garment exports compete more effectively against those made in China or Indonesia. One advantage of the restructuring of the local textile/apparel industry is the greater use of synthetic fibers. This is expected to generate by-product for the local chemical industry which produces synthetic fibers such as lycra and rayon. (Tony Sitathan) At the same time the producers of these products bring foreign investment into Singapore. Singapore is now the third largest recipient of U.S. foreign direct investment in the Asia-Pacific, after Australia and Japan. The FTA also has helped to add momentum to Singapore's initiatives to develop as a regional and global hub for medical technology, financial services, and transport and shipping. Similarly there are various benefits to the United States. (Statement as to how the united states-Singapore free trade agreement serves the interests of United States commerce). Singapore has committed to eliminating all outstanding tariffs on U.S to zero percent. Singapore's financial services sectors, such as banking and insurance are also accessible for U.S. businesses. The FTA also requires Singapore to lessen restrictions on U.S. law firms that plan to form joint law practices in Singapore. Further there are benefits for U.S. telecom service providers. At the same time world-class standards for protection are provided for various forms of intellectual property. Smooth and transparent access to Singapore's market is another benefit for the development of small and medium enterprises. Concrete obligations on customs procedures that will help U.S. cut down additional costs in exports market are also provided. Finally appropriate attention is also given to domestic laws providing fo r labor standards. At the same time a comprehensive FTA between the United States and Korea will bring about significant economic benefits for both sides. (United States-Korea free trade agreement:a win-win proposition) Korea is an important and attractive trade partner for the United States. It is the seventh largest trading partner and seventh largest export market, and sixth largest agricultural market for the United States. This promises a remarkable opportunity for U.S. businesses and workers. Second, there will be increased access

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Management accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Management accounting - Essay Example It may be noted that the financial tool of ratio analysis has been used to make comments and comparisons between the two companies over their financial position and performance. During 2007 Intercontinental has not effectively improved upon its profitability performances in 2006. In fact it has maintained more or less the same level of profitability as was in 2006.The increases in profitability ratios in net profit and return on equity are deceptive. ROE has increased manifolds because capital employed has been reduced tremendously from $686m to mere $49m. Otherwise gross profit ratio that shows the real operative efficiency of the entity has dwindled and remained at almost the same level. Increase in return on capital employed is marginal. The overall efficiency on operational profitability has not improved. The profitability performance of Peel Hotels in 2007 has also gone down when compared with 2006. Gross profits and ROCE that show operational efficiency has shown declined performances. On the hand ROE, return on assets, net profit ratios that are affected by factors other than operation performances have shown increased performances. The result is that company has not improved upon its real profitability but shown efficiency only to attract investors and other interested users of financial statements. Both companies are facing liquidity crunch as reflected from their current and quick ratios. Both ratios are lower than the standards required to maintain optimum level of liquidity. The liquidity status is critical in both the years for each of the companies. The companies have to take some extraordinary steps to improve liquidity; otherwise both companies are facing the danger of short term insolvency. Intercontinental has low inventory turnover but it at least has maintained the same performance in 2007 as was in 2006. The company has shown improvement in collection of debtors but

How Personal Can Ethics Get Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

How Personal Can Ethics Get - Essay Example The three ethical issues of the case were the unethical behavior of Valarie’s boss Water, personal ethical dilemma of Valarie and the third was Valarie’s sharing the company’s sensitive information with her boyfriend who was outsider of the company. In the case I had faced the similar situation like Valerie; I had used the invoices I had found near the copy machine of the copy room of the office area to the CEO of the company. The paper I had found is strong evidence that can be supported by the actions being taken by Water. I would have also clarified my condition to the CEO and request him to not reveal my name unless some strong action is being taken against Water. I strongly believe the CEO himself would understand that in order to sustain the growths and have competitive advantage such practices should be discouraged and strictly prohibited. The company also has a replacement for Water and an effective team of people who like to work. I would never have shared the organizational information with my boyfriend or anyone close to me. I would have prepared myself for the alternatives so that if things go worst than I have an option for myself. The world does not end there. My moral values are the base for my ethical standards which do not allow me to go against the company interests and policies. The stressors for Valarie are result of poor work place environment, unethical behavior of the boss and the personal factors like work visa and educational issues. The stressors for Valarie are the situational stressors like unfavorable working conditions where the immediate boss is involved in unethical practices and her own frustrations of not being able to do anything about it (Scheck et al, 1997). The second category of the stressors is anticipatory stressors like unpleasant expectations and fear (O’Driscoll and Beehr, 1994). The unpleasant expectations are the expectation raised due to the personal

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Management accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Management accounting - Essay Example It may be noted that the financial tool of ratio analysis has been used to make comments and comparisons between the two companies over their financial position and performance. During 2007 Intercontinental has not effectively improved upon its profitability performances in 2006. In fact it has maintained more or less the same level of profitability as was in 2006.The increases in profitability ratios in net profit and return on equity are deceptive. ROE has increased manifolds because capital employed has been reduced tremendously from $686m to mere $49m. Otherwise gross profit ratio that shows the real operative efficiency of the entity has dwindled and remained at almost the same level. Increase in return on capital employed is marginal. The overall efficiency on operational profitability has not improved. The profitability performance of Peel Hotels in 2007 has also gone down when compared with 2006. Gross profits and ROCE that show operational efficiency has shown declined performances. On the hand ROE, return on assets, net profit ratios that are affected by factors other than operation performances have shown increased performances. The result is that company has not improved upon its real profitability but shown efficiency only to attract investors and other interested users of financial statements. Both companies are facing liquidity crunch as reflected from their current and quick ratios. Both ratios are lower than the standards required to maintain optimum level of liquidity. The liquidity status is critical in both the years for each of the companies. The companies have to take some extraordinary steps to improve liquidity; otherwise both companies are facing the danger of short term insolvency. Intercontinental has low inventory turnover but it at least has maintained the same performance in 2007 as was in 2006. The company has shown improvement in collection of debtors but

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Respone artical Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Respone artical - Essay Example This focus necessarily detracts from some of the better known artists that have gained renowned based upon their overall appeal and artistry. Seemingly all too often, individuals that review music will disparage popular music to such a great degree that they fail to recognize that some aspects of it, or at the very least certain artists, demand a level of attention; due to the fact that their success is ultimately the result of the fact that many individuals have come to appreciate their music and thereby gives them a level of credence. Additionally, the piece focuses almost entirely on R&B, rap/hip-hop, folk, and a few other genres; hardly inclusive of the full range of music that has been represented over the past four years. Essentially, the qualms of this author with the listing are of course subjective; however, any number of individuals might agree, disagree, love or detest the listing based upon their own musical

Monday, October 14, 2019

A Raisin in the Sun Book Review Essay Example for Free

A Raisin in the Sun Book Review Essay A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry is a truly exquisite piece of literature that has influenced readers, young and old, for generations. It gives us a very realistic view of racial tension, as well as the socioeconomic struggles, African Americans faced during the late 1940s-50s. In this play we meet the Youngers, a lower-class, diverse-minded, African American family simply trying to survive in 1950s South Chicago. Together they face economic hardship, racial discrimination, and the constant struggle to keep a fragile family together as each member searches for their version of the â€Å"American Dream†. Hansberry did an excellent job in creating the Younger family to represent lower class African American families in the 1950s. The Youngers live in a rundown, two-bedroom apartment. The family consists of Mama, Walter, Ruth, Travis, and Beneatha. The economic aspect of the play is centered around the insurance check Mama will be getting for her late husband, the author uses this to create a foundation for the Youngers story; the money elicits conflict between the characters as each has their own idea on what to do with money that does not even belong to them. A major motif in this play is racism, the author allows for a bit of foreshadowing in the beginning of the play with the bombing of another African American family in Clybourne Park, a mainly white community and the area where Mama eventually buys the new family house. Hansberry uses Walter to tie these two themes together. After losing all of the money Mama gave him to invest in his business and to save for Beneatha’s college fund, he then goes to get more money by selling back Mama’s new house: he can either overcome the racism and be the man his mother always knew he could be, or he can take the money for another chance to pursue his dreams but at the same time he would essentially be selling his soul to the devil. Walter must choose to either satiate his thirst for wealth or maintain the pride of his race. Finally, Hansberry acknowledges the importance of family unity during  these times. Ruth and Mama are the two main characters attempting to hold everything together. Hansberry made these characters strong and full of hope, despite their situation in life. Created any other way and we would probably see the family fall apart as the story began to unfold. Money and racism are also huge tests on the strength of this family as they struggle through the hardships of poverty and realize the shortcomings of some of the family members. All in all, A Raisin in the Sun is a very well written book. It is written in such a way that really puts you in the cramped, living conditions with the Youngers and helps readers to understand what it meant to be a poor African American family in the 1950s. Hansberry did a great job in creating solid characters which help to develop the story smoothly and realistically. It was a play I thoroughly enjoyed reading and would readily suggest to anyone looking for a good read.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Importance of Ecumenism

The Importance of Ecumenism That they all may be one; as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that you have sent me (John 17:21) Ecumenism must always be a concept that is central to good Christian living; it is a concept that should be alive and active and a concept that should always be served effectively through thought, through word and through action. Ecumenism is a word that is mentioned a lot within the wider universal church, but what exactly is it? What does it mean, and does it really matter? It is a concept within the Christian faith that aims to restore unity both amongst and within different Christian denominations. Central to the concept of ecumenism are the themes of unity, fellowship and collaboration. Christian unity and thus ecumenism is something that all Christians should be concerned with. For Catholics, ecumenism should be considered a vital mission of the Church, for it was Christ who gave us the gift of unity and thus all of us should strive to enhance, restore and maintain this gift as appropriate. In recent times, more than ever before, He has been rousing divided Christians to remorse over their divisions and to a longing for unity. Everywhere large numbers have felt the impulse of this grace, and among our separated brethren also there increases from day to day the movement, fostered by the grace of the Holy Spirit, for the restoration of unity among all Christians. This movement toward unity is called ecumenical (U.R., 1964). Quite often as Christians it can be all too easy for each of us to identify the divisions and obstacles between ourselves and those of other Christian denominations, but what unites us is far stronger than what divides us. If Christians are to be truly ecumenical in their outlook, then better relationships and better understandings of different Christian perspectives are essential both from an internal and external perspective on the part of the individual. Catholics in particular should remember that within the Roman Catholic Church there are many different rites and that while all are focused on the same God adored in three persons, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, the different rites are often unique in terms of aspects of heritage, liturgy, tradition, customs and cultures. The key word with regard to the uniqueness of the different rites within the Catholic Church and between other Christian denominations is diversity and diversity should be a source of celebration and rejoicing rather than division and separation. The Ordinariate, for example, as a rite within the Catholic Church has a style and patrimony that is distinct from other rites and groups within the wider Catholic Church and what is important to remember is that diversity is not a bad thing but it is a good thing. Rather than looking at diversity as something that prevents unity or acts as a barrier to it, we should come to understand and appreciate that diversity is actually something that seeks to enhance unity. The Catholic Church embraces with hope the commitment to ecumenism as a duty of the Christian conscience enlightened by faith and guided by love. Here too we can apply the words of Saint Paul to the first Christians of Rome: Gods love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit; thus our hope does not disappoint us (Rom 5:5). This is the hope of Christian unity, which has its divine source in the Trinitarian unity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit (U.U.S., 1995). In a society where the message of the Gospels appears to be absent in so many ways, all Christian denominations should seek to work together to be people of faith in what can often be a dark and troubled world. Spreading the message of Jesus to those around us is part of our duty as Christians. We must also see the face of God in all of those around us and constantly seek to do what is right and just. For Catholics, working and engaging positively and in cooperation with other Christian denominations who worship or pray in a different manner from ourselves and who express their faith in different ways is essential for unity. What is important is that God must always be our focus, that individuals should strive to be dignified and reverent in their own style of worship and prayer. Further to this, Catholics should acknowledge their duty to engage with other Christian denominations at every opportunity. This can be through local partnerships and national initiatives, there are many opportunities for Catholics to engage with other Christians in a unified manner. For they are of the opinion that the unity of faith and government, which is a note of the one true Church of Christ, has hardly up to the present time existed, and does not to-day exist. They consider that this unity may indeed be desired and that it may even be one day attained through the instrumentality of wills directed to a common end, but that meanwhile it can only be regarded as mere ideal. They add that the Church in itself, or of its nature, is divided into sections; that is to say, that it is made up of several churches or distinct communities, which still remain separate, and although having certain articles of doctrine in common, nevertheless disagree concerning the remainder; that these all enjoy the same rights; and that the Church was one and unique from, at the most, the apostolic age until the first Ecumenical Councils. Controversies therefore, they say, and longstanding differences of opinion which keep asunder till the present day the members of the Christian fami ly, must be entirely put aside, and from the remaining doctrines a common form of faith drawn up and proposed for belief, and in the profession of which all may not only know but feel that they are brothers. The manifold churches or communities, if united in some kind of universal federation, would then be in a position to oppose strongly and with success the progress of irreligion (M.A., 1928) The need for greater care and attention to be shown to the whole human race is very much apparent in todays society and through common fellowship centred on Jesus Christ; Christians of all denominations can be a common and unified voice of faith in our society. The voice of Christians who are united is one that can promote the values of honesty, integrity, kindness, compassion, support and sensitivity throughout society and can show to society as a whole that valuing the human dignity and worth of every single person is something of great importance. The path to full Christian unity is an ongoing journey, but all of us must respect our brothers and sisters of different denominations, remembering that unity is something desired by God. Christ bestowed unity on his Church from the beginning. This unity, we believe, subsists in the Catholic Church as something she can never lose, and we hope that it will continue to increase until the end of time.Christ always gives his Church the gift of unity, but the Church must always pray and work to maintain, reinforce, and perfect the unity that Christ wills for her. This is why Jesus himself prayed at the hour of his Passion, and does not cease praying to his Father, for the unity of his disciples: That they may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I am in you, may they also be one in us, . . . so that the world may know that you have sent me.The desire to recover the unity of all Christians is a gift of Christ and a call of the Holy Spirit. (C.C.C., 2011) It is fantastic that the Year of Mercy was embraced by both Catholics and non-Catholics alike and even though the Year of Mercy has now officially ended, its legacy will live on for many years to come. In order for us all to be able fully to embrace the concept of Christian unity, forgiveness and mercy must be central elements in our approach to the idea of unity with all of us remembering that unity is like teamwork, it gives us all the potential to allow us to achieve far more collectively than we can on an individual level. In addition to physical action, prayer is a key component in achieving Christian unity. It is though prayer that we become closer to God and while praying may not always be easy, it is a way in which all of us can truly open our hearts and minds to God. Praying for Christian unity is something of great importance and is something we should all try to do, as is praying with our fellow Christians. We must remember that unity begins at the foot of the cross. As with teamwork, unity is a collective effort that has the potential to achieve far more than can be achieved on an individual level. As individuals, we are all precious in the eyes of God, we are all equal and though Christian unity we can all seek to glorify God in collective and sincere manners. Striving for unity both within the Catholic Church and within the Christian faith as a whole must continue. The challenges and barriers to unity must be constantly worked on in order for unity to be achieved. All of us have our part to play, through prayer, acknowledgement, understanding, appreciation, engagement and fellowship with all Catholics and people of the Christian faith. Ecumenism should not be seen as a trivial matter as its aim is ultimately for us all to be one, one with each other and one with God, the father of all. Christian unity is something all Christians should be concerned with. Perhaps we should all ponder on the first few words of Psalm 132 Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity. All Bible quotes are from The Jerusalem Bible. Catechism Catholic Church, 2011. YOUCAT. English Language ed. s.l.:Catholic Truth Society. Web resourses: internet source 1: John Paul II, 1995. Ut Unum Sint (25 May 1995) | John Paul II. Available at:[Accessed 10th February 2017]. Internet source 2: Pius XI, 1928. Mortalium Animos (January 6, 1928) | PIUS XI.Available at:[Accessed 11th February 2017]. Internet source 3: Vatican II, 1964. Unitatis redintegratio. Available at:[Accessed 10th February 2017]. Word count 1125.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

gatdream American Dream Alive and Well in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby :: Great Gatsby Essays

The American Dream is Alive and Well in 2002 "...One Nation, under God, indivisible, with justice for all." Most Americans have heard and said this pledge to allegiance hundreds of times. The question is, do we really believe in the power of its meaning? It's a shame that America, land of the free, is also the land of capitalism, scandal and discrimination. Though we have the freedom to bear arms, freedom of speech, and freedom of religious and political affiliation, some Americans claim that they do not have the freedom to be themselves. Images from the media of aesthetic beauty and financial success bombard the majority of Americans on an everyday basis. It is only natural for one to attempt to 'improve' himself or herself by living up to the standards imposed by society. Unfortunately, America's brand of 'self-improvement' often comes with a price. I agree with the definition in Webster's College Dictionary of the American Dream: 'an American ideal of social equality and especially material success. Though the American Dream is very much alive for many, it is not necessarily well for most. Ron Suskind, author of the national bestseller, A Hope in the Unseen, writes about the real-life story of Cedric Jennings. Jennings was a high school senior at a crime-infested school in Washington, D.C. Jennings beats the odds in Suskind's novel of the American struggle, and gains acceptance into Brown University (an Ivy League school). Jennings dealt with more than the average high school turmoil in his four years at Frank W. Ballou Senior High School. He couldn't even accept his award for a year of perfect grades in fear that his life would be threatened: "Pride and such accomplishment is acceptable behavior for sterling students at high schools across the land, but at Ballou and other urban schools like it, something else is at work" (Suskind 17). This is the crab in the bucket syndrome (a phrase coined by educators, Suskind explains) where one crab pulls the other crab down, and keeps them from climbing out of the bucket. Though Cedric is aware of the jeers he receives from his classmates for his accomplishments, he continues to hold his head up high when he thinks of his "green light": to graduate from Ballou, and continue his education at an Ivy League school. As I read A Hope in the Unseen, I thought of the unfairness of the American ideal.

Friday, October 11, 2019

News paper reading

The first article (July 4) is about the growing dangers of Kuwait work trucks that travel on roads while being severely overloaded with logs, iron rods, furniture, and water. There are several reasons why these vehicles have become veritable road hazards responsible for numerous accidents. Reckless driving was cited as one of the highest cause of road accidents involving these trucks. Some citizens attested to instances showing drivers’ utter lack of consideration for pedestrians even to those who have physical disabilities. One man recalled an incident involving his cousin who was a cripple, who died after being run over by a lumber truck. Others cite poor vehicle conditions as another primary cause of accidents.One British expatriate living in Kuwait narrated how water tankers usually have bad brakes and how being overburdened with water makes it more difficult for truckers to maneuver. He also narrated about one instance of recklessness wherein the truck driver suddenly cut in front of him, almost killing him was he not able to step on his brakes. Another hazard was trucks with loose fastenings of furniture or iron bars. Such objects fall from the truck and cause trouble for motorists behind the truck.The article’s reporter discussed an incident about how he himself experienced one such incident. Safety measures taken to prevent hazards from vehicles on the road are vague. There are certain periods of time where the law prohibits trucks from driving inside the city but such laws are often violated by truckers and Kuwait’s local police seem to be inadequate in preventing such violations.This issue is clearly a violation of Article 3 of the Declaration of Human rights which seeks to protect the life, liberty and security of all persons. The truckers’ lack of discretion with regards to the pedestrians that they interact with constitutes an utter disregard to Article 3 which should be addressed by the Kuwait government, especially sin ce the usual victims of such accidents are those who are disabled.The second article (July 5) is about how the Kuwait Parliament gives ardent attention to the needs of disabled individuals. The Parliament has released an order calling on state agencies to provide specialized services to people with special needs. Kuwait National Assembly member Saad al-Sharia discussed in the 4th Arab Parliamentary Symposium on Disabled Persons’ Disabilities how due attention should be provided to people with special needs especially in the aspect of integrating such people into society as productive individuals. The Parliament member gave emphasis on investing in the use of human resources in nation building and service.This move by the parliament is in respect of human rights. The parliament hopes to incarnate the deeper meaning of humanity and humanitarian causes towards the development of its civilization. Specifically, parliament aims to create specialized educational institutions to add ress the needs of special children who are not able to learn through conventional means. Parliament aims to establish more centers for rehabilitation research. It also aims to modernize such institutions that currently exist. The project will also create clinics and entertainment utilities that can cover people of all ages and of all physical, mental and psychological disabilities.The third article (July 6) reports the strengthening of the Kuwaiti resolve to provide better governmental services. It discusses how the state is funneling ample finances and gathering substantial human resources to raise public awareness of special needs in its continuing advocacy for human rights. In an interview with Secretary of the Arab Parliamentary Caucus of the National Assembly Jamal Al-Kandari, it was revealed that Kuwait has already â€Å"mapped out† specific plans for disabled individuals to be properly integrated into the society and assume roles that will be both productive and fulfil ling.In the ongoing symposia for disabled individuals, legislation for the protection of the human rights of disabled individuals was also put into focus. Much emphasis was given on the current dangers that face disabled individuals in different parts of Kuwait. Dr. al-Shuraye’s lecture, he discussed that as these people are not as mobile as normal individuals, they are more prone to becoming victims of accidents especially on the road. It was concluded by the article that the Kuwaiti delegation will arrive at several useful recommendations to serve the interests of handicapped individuals in Kuwait.The fourth article (July 7) narrates how the Farwaniya Hospital in coordination with Kuwait’s Ministry of Interior has made the announcement of building a security kiosk at the entrance of the hospital. The move was made after several alarming actions taken by several individuals that threatened to harm both patients and doctors inside the facility. Several weeks prior to t he announcement, it was reported that the hospital received an anonymous terrorist threat due to some of the relatives of the patients who were unhappy with hospital  management. Other instances involved violence perpetrated by relatives of patients who died while inside hospital care.The relatives of the deceased patients felt that the doctors were responsible for their relatives’ deaths and took matters into their own hands. Although no incident of serious injury has yet to be recorded inside hospital premises, hospital officials nonetheless became concerned with preempting any such possibilities from actually occurring. This prompted hospital officials to set up meetings to solve growing problems in securing hospital premises. It was brought up that the lack of means for proper visitor identification is the biggest risk that the hospital has of intrusion. This led to the forwarding of the idea of setting up a security kiosk that would be able to properly identify individ uals visiting patients inside the hospital so as to secure hospital patients and personnel.The last article (July 8) discusses how Kuwait officials and concerned groups currently feel about Kuwait’s move to give emphasis to the human rights of disabled individuals in the region. Dr. Fahad Al-Wardan, the ministry’s Nursery Department Director stated that the government moves aimed at encouraging the disabled to exert more efforts in developing themselves educationally and morally. He said that this was also the aim of the movement for the general public; to have them well informed about the current issue of physical, mental, and psychological disabilities and in the process gets them to be involved in the government project. Dr. Al-Wardan discussed several findings with respect to research on disabled individuals, citing that both literature and actual research suggest that such individuals still have considerable potential to serve society.Dr Al-wardan also made refere nces to the existing government efforts on improving disabled individuals’ lives prior to the government announcement, stating that it was a fulfilling activity both for the recipients and the volunteers. He expressed satisfaction in the current progress of the movement in the country, and anticipation at the recently announced project of the Kuwait Parliament to give emphasis of disabled individuals’ well-being.Dr. Al-Wardan hoped that included in the parliament’s proposed plan was to increase the pay scale for social workers who are currently one of the lowest paid sectors in society. He emphasized on the role of social workers in providing guidance and assistance to the disabled. He also gave due credence to the major role that donations from private organizations have made to the overall effort of helping disabled individuals.The five articles are linked together with respect to their relationship to upholding human rights. In the first article, the dangers to individuals by the recklessness of certain groups in society were discussed as a violation of the tenets of article 3 in the declaration of human rights.The second article provides a possible response of government, the main protector of the human rights of a particular citizenry, to uphold such rights of a disenfranchised group in society identified as the disabled individuals. This was strengthened by the 3rd article which gave in extensive detail the proposed government plan to alleviating the plights of disabled individuals. The fourth article saw a similar plight related to the article  3 of human rights. This was the right to security that both doctors and patients in the hospital in question required. The government acted on that right by helping the hospital set up security measures to prevent future incidents from occurring. Finally, the last article reaffirmed the human rights of disabled individuals in the perspective of current actors in the movement.In conclusion, it can be said that although the prevalence of human rights violations can still be seen in the area of Kuwait, government is doing what it can to solve the issue. Government should always work hand in hand with the private sector, concerned individuals and volunteers, and disenfranchised groups themselves in order to detect societal problems involving violations in human rights and provide for the appropriate means for these problems’ eventual alleviation.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Globalization of Deforestation

Before you can understand anything surrounding deforestation, you must know what it actually is. Many people believe that it is just cutting down trees, specifically in the rainforests. They are correct, but there is much more to it than that. Yes, deforestation is cutting down trees, but what many people don’t know are the effects that it has. Deforestation affects almost every aspect of life. It affects the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, as well as the global economy and politics. Many people believe that deforestation is a modern idea that was brought on by the industrialization era.The truth is deforestation has been around since the beginning of mankind. Scientists believe that most of Europe had become deforested by 1850 (Kaplan 3024). As you can see, deforestation has been occurring for a long time, and globalization has just sped up the process and increased the rates. But what all does deforestation actually affect? The list is nearly endless, becaus e it is different in every environment and population. On a global scale though deforestation affects greenhouse gases, climate, soil fertility, water quality, watersheds, and biodiversity.Deforestation causes all of the CO2 gases stored in trees to be released into the atmosphere which increases greenhouse gases and ultimately affects the climate and global warming. Tropical deforestation alone, â€Å"accounts for about 15 percent of the world’s global warming pollution—more than that produced by every car, truck, plane, ship, and train on Earth† (Boucher 1). The area where deforestation occurs destroys the soil’s fertility inhibiting it from being able to regrow there. Erosion caused by deforestation runs off into streams, rivers, and lakes which affect the water quality and watersheds.Deforestation also affects biodiversity, because it kills or helps kill off plants and animals that are important to the local environment. With all of these negative eff ects, you would think that deforestation would be a hot topic. The truth is that most people will agree that deforestation is wrong, but very few of them will do anything about it. That is why I believe all of the policies, laws and programs which surround deforestation should be brought to greater attention and enforced. One of the leading rograms which has helped reduce deforestation in several countries is REDD, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation. Seeing deforestation has a leading cause of emissions is new and this program has had more success than past ones. Basically, â€Å"countries are compensated if they reduce their carbon emissions from forest clearing† (Boucher 1). This gives developing and developed countries incentive to reduce deforestation because they would make more money from not deforesting than they would from deforesting.This program has gained support from the United Nations and several countries are already adopting it. But, i f we want to slow down or even stop this â€Å"monster† called deforestation then we need all of the world’s help. That is why we need to get programs like REDD and the effects of deforestation out to the public. We have all of these ideas, programs, policies, and laws which could help with the issue of deforestation, but nothing is being done to help enforce and inform people about them.All industries should try to make their products as green as possible because every little bit counts. Sure, it might cost a little more, but in the long run it is for the greater good. Just as Franklin D. Roosevelt once said, â€Å"A nation that destroys its soils destroys itself. Forests are the lungs of our land, purifying the air and giving fresh strength to our people. † Although the forests are much more than that, it is true that deforestation will destroy a country and the world in time.

Show Some Respect

Show Some Respect Michel de Montaigne once said, â€Å"There is, nevertheless, a certain respect and a general duty of humanity that ties us, not only to beasts that have life and sense, but even to trees and plants† (Foglia). Respect is the catalyst in the formation of a stepping stone on the path through the forest of life, creating bonds with all living creatures along the way. It is through respect that the other six of the seven teachings are formed. Instilled in the youth of my time, or at least in my family, is to always be respectful towards all elders. This is something that today’s youth has let fade into the past.It is heart wrenching to see elders being bad mouthed, ignored, and treated so cruelly. I was always taught to listen to what my elders were offering me in advice, even if I didn’t want it. I never once dared to talk back. If you respect your elders, take the time to listen. You’ll be truly inspired as you hear their stories of long ago . Elders hold so much wisdom of the past, we can learn from them on how to better our future as people and caretakers of mother earth. Croaker 2 That being said, respect can also be defined in how we treat Mother Earth. Taking the time to recycle is one way of showing respect to her.It’s really sad to see all the garbage being buried beneath her surface. Mother Earth is not a dumping ground, she’s a birthing ground. Every spring she gives birth to new life to shed more beauty upon us. From the first flower breaking the surface to the greening of the trees. She welcomes in not only the human births, but the births of animals as well. That alone deserves the utmost respect, so let’s do our part and keep her clean. â€Å"Respect yourself and take good care of yourself† (Using the Seven Traditional Teachings to Raise Healthy Anishinaabe Children 18).This is the first step in defining what respect is. How do you treat yourself? Do you ask for help when you nee d it or do you proceed alone? Questions purposely left unanswered because it’s too hard to face the fact that they lost respect for themselves. People are constantly disrespecting their bodies by abusing drugs and alcohol. Maybe that’s why most won’t look in the mirror. They are too afraid they won’t like what they see because they lost all respect for their spirit to thrive. Because of this I see the pain emanating from the eyes of our precious elders as they watch our youth commit cultural genocide.Mashkode-bizhiki, translated into English from the Ojibwe language means buffalo. I do not know exactly why our people chose this animal to represent respect in the seven teachings. However, I believe their paths have been intertwined with the Anishinaabe people because together they endured the tests of time. They had to go survive harsh winter conditions without the luxury of electricity to keep them warm at night. They were also slaughtered senselessly by Croaker 3 the white man as they took their lands from them. Here we are today, still standing strong but fewer in numbers just like the mashkode-bizhiki.If the path through the forest of life was marked with stones that represented each one of our sacred seven teachings, the stone of respect would begin the path. The next teachings would then follow. Because, respect forms all other teachings that assists in the formation of bonds with all living creatures as well. Works Cited: Foglia, Marc. â€Å"Michel De Montaigne. † Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 18 Aug 2004. Web. 21 Jan 2013. . â€Å"Using the Seven Teachings to Raise Healthy Anishinaabe Children. † Booklet. 18. print

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Korean Literature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Korean Literature - Essay Example cause the she-bear followed all the instructions of Hwanung, which involved eating sacred magworts, and being in the darkness for a period of a hundred days. The two are compared because the both developed human forms. The she-bear transformed into a woma, and also the Holy Hwanung changed into a human male. The two procreated, and the resulting son was referred to as Tangun Wangg’om. Korean shamanism entails the ancient religion and beliefs of the Korean society. In the ancient belief, the priest is referred to as the mudang if female and the baksu if he is male. The mudang has the main responsibility of being an intermediary between the gods and the people through rituals. The spiritual intermediaries also aim at solving problems that humans experience, in the course of their development. The central concept in the Korean Shamanistic practices entails the worship of Hwanin, also known as Haneullim. Hwanin is considered the source of the entire universe, which comprises all the beings and gods that exist in nature. The mu is traditionally illustrated as the descendants of the son of the heavenly king. This investiture is generally passed through the princely lineage. But, certain significant myths in the Korean Shamanistic beliefs connect the heritage of the ancient belief to Dangun. Dangun is considered as the male heir to the Heavenly King, also the initiator or the founder of the ancient Korean nation. Korean Shamanism is closely linked to; the Japanese Shinto, Siberian Mongolian, Chinese Wuism, and Manchurian beliefs. Anthropological studies illustrate that the ancient Korean god Dangun, has a lot of similarities to; the prince, the Ural-Altaic Tengri, and the shaman. Likewise, mudang is closely associated with Japanese miko and Ryukyuan yuta (Hogarth 117). The myth illustrates adequate relationship between the northern China and Korea, before the formation of the Han dynasty. Ancient Korea and Yen state illustrates adequate political influence of Old

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

How I robbed myself Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

How I robbed myself - Essay Example I had been exposed to drugs and my addiction grew to such an extent that it forced me into rehabilitation, which destroyed my life and self-respect and has forced me to start my life all over again.. When I look back upon those years when I had taken to drugs, it makes me wonder with utmost surprise and despair in the way in which I prefer to go along a wrong path in spite of having knowledge that these substances are harmful for the body and are addictive. Given these premises, I have quite often been trying to discover the root causes that have encouraged me to take to drugs. One of the most primary aspects that determine whether a person is vulnerable to drug abuse is his/her friends’ circle. This is because the nature of his/her friends explains the degree to which they are closest to witness people using drugs and see the aftermath. Secondly, it also depends on the person’s inner strength and resolve to stay away from these ill effects of life. A person takes to drugs either when he finds the sensation under drugs to be calming and enjoyable and in many cases people are pushed into it whenever they are encouraged by their friends to do so. This has always proved to have an adverse effect not only on the person, bit also on their families and friends. At a personal level, drugs have destroyed me mentally, emotionally and financially as well. They have turned me into something that I wasn’t before and it makes me very sad when some of the people around me keep referring to those times even though I have come out of it. It makes me realize the seriousness of my mistake and I now understand the degree to which drugs tarnish one’s image. Drugs provide an illusory sense of well being, where the person is reduced merely to an object, but destroy them internally by silently attacking their metabolism. Apart from this, drugs also create such an effect within the person’s body that

Monday, October 7, 2019

Articles of Confederation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Articles of Confederation - Essay Example Constitution was written in 1787, ratified the next year, and George Washington assumed its presidency one year after that. (Bush Defends Rate of Progress in Iraq, p. A03) However, it is also believed that the cause for the alterations was widespread mistrust of the fundamental authority and jealousy of some states involved in this issue. Unfortunately, these were some reasons which resulted the emasculation of the articles of confederation. When the 13 original American colonies met in 1774 to ratify the Articles of Confederation - the first draft of the US Constitution - smaller states were frightened of domination by larger states and every state was frightened of losing its independence. (United State of Confusion p. 8). Moreover, Strang also believes that "the Articles established a "confederacy" and "firm league of friendship" of "free [] and independent[t]" states. It purported to create a "perpetual Union" between the same". (Strang, P. 909) In fact, when ratified the articles of confederation the articles declared solemnly that each of thirteen states would enjoy freedom, independence and sovereignty. Soon after the ratification of articles of confederation each thirteen states enjoyed equal rights and privileges, freedom of movement, and most importantly the articles of confederation clearly outlined the trials of criminals accused. ... Nonetheless, in this regard, neither separate judicial branches nor executives were provided for. According to Golove D the articles of confederation, though in some few respects national, were mainly of a pure federative character and were treated as stipulations between states.( Golove, p.1697) As a matter of fact, congress was the only authority that had major obligations such as declaring war or peach, maintaining or rotating foreign relations with other nations, army and navy command, foreign disputes regarding boundaries, conducting and settling postal services and so forth. Nevertheless, some aforesaid obligations were shared among states and in one way or another in this respect congress was the alone authority who was dependent upon cooperation of the states for carrying out any of them. "Four visible weaknesses of the articles, apart from those of organization, made it impossible for Congress to execute its constitutional duties. These were analyzed in numbers 15-22 of The FEDERALIST, the political essays in which Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay argued the case for the U.S. CONSTITUTION of 1787". ( Golove, p.1697) In this regard, the very first weakness of the articles was that according to it the congress could not legislate for individual peoples; however, it could legislate only for state, consequently, congress could not enforce legislation. Secondly, congress under this article could evaluate its expenses and can distribute those among the states, and it was calculated on behalf of land's value, but congress had no right and power on taxes. In order to raise the money for these expenses and turn the proceeds over to congress, States had rights and powers to mark tax their

Saturday, October 5, 2019

Seeking Treatment within Criminal Justice System Research Paper

Seeking Treatment within Criminal Justice System - Research Paper Example There are many treatment methods that the criminal justice systems have implemented and still continue to incorporate in their systems. There have been debates on whether the criminal justice systems should use the multi-dimensional kind of treatment where there is a combination of different methods of treatment, or uni-dimensional treatment where only one method is used at a time. This paper discusses the different kinds of treatment in the criminal justice systems. Keywords: Criminal Justice System, Treatment, Multi-Dimensional, Uni-Dimensional, Co-Morbidity Introduction The criminal justice system is a set of agencies and processes that have been established by governments to control crime and impose punishments to those who violate the law. Criminal justice is a complex subject to deal with. Most nations have several systems of justice; for example, in the United States, there are different systems of criminal justice. The criminal justice system is therefore a system that ensure s that the laws of different countries are enforced (Goldsmith & Israel, 2000). Drug courts have been created in some nations, such as the United States America. This is in response to the realization that there is need for increased capacity in local jails, due to the high number of criminals arrested for reasons related to drug abuse. ... The criminal justice systems in many countries have most of the time received a lot of criticism, because most of the people do not have trust in them. This is because most of them fail to treat offenders, which is in fact the main reason behind the establishment of such systems. There are different methods that can be used to treat substance abusers, mentally ill criminals and other conditions in people who enter into the systems. This paper discusses multi-dimensional and uni-dimensional treatments that are effective in treating criminals within the criminal justice system. Differences between multi dimensional and uni-dimensional treatments with substance abusers Multidimensional Family Therapy treatment is commonly used to treat substance abuse in adolescents and related behavioral and mental health problems (Liddle, Rodriguez, Dakof, Kanzki &Marvel, n.d.). The method seeks to reduce symptoms and at the same time, enhance developmental functioning by changing some domains of the behavior. This kind of treatment has received the highest rating in treating adolescent drug abusers, especially the juveniles because not use a single specified method making it very effective. This treatment is based on a combination of the theoretical and clinical traditions of psychopathology and developmental psychology, family therapy, and an ecological perspective. According to Liddle, Rodriguez, Dakof, Kanzki and Marvel, â€Å"multidimensional treatment uses research derived knowledge about risk and protective factors for adolescent drug related problems as the basis for assessment an intervention† (p. 128). Multidimensional Family Therapy holds the argument that drug abuse among teenagers is

Friday, October 4, 2019

Contemporary business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Contemporary business - Essay Example In addition, the report will include examples on Coca Cola, Toyota and leadership style of Bill Gates to support all the discussions. Finally, a conclusion will be provided to summarise all research findings and mentioned business management issues / problems. Before critically analysing the functions and management issues in a global business to identify ways to reduce risk and improve organisational effectiveness, I first would like to throw light over what we mean by efficiency and effectiveness. Organisational efficiency refers to the capability of a business enterprise to produce maximum output with the help of same available sources. In other words, it could be defined as an ability to produce same level of output with fewer sources. The world has become a global village after the contemporary developments and advancements in information technology and communication networks. These recent advancements and improvements in media networks and advertising have greatly affected the attitudes, beliefs, behaviours, lifestyles and perceptions. At the same time, this has also created many business opportunities for enterprises. In fact, many businesses have gone global and have become transnational, multinational or supranational corporations with operations all across the world. Companies today are expanding their operations all across the globe to target a large group of potential customers who are heavily exposed to media, and who now have relatively similar lifestyles (inclination towards a white collar job, brands, facilities, luxuries etc). On the other hand, customers have also become very demanding, since they seek value and are inclined towards new and innovative products. In short, it could be said that busines ses have to deal with a large diverse group of customers who have both willingness and ability towards different innovative and existing products. Businesses usually have many different international market entry

Thursday, October 3, 2019

Paris and Peace Essay Example for Free

Paris and Peace Essay Serene tried to remember the last time she and her cousin, Tina actually behaved like family, but she had to make a truce with her nonetheless. This truce was her ticket to freedom in a new city, a new country and the action necessary to please her parents. Tina was now her roommate. Selena knew her parents would never have allowed her to study Philosophy in Chicago without a chaperone. Tina fit that role in Serenas new life, but how could it be new with these old world requirements? Her parents believed that she was irresponsible, always allowing her taste for life and excitement to cloud her good judgment. Her mom and dad always wished that she would be more traditional and docile, but she had always defied that logic in her quest for her own female freedom. They were reluctant in sending their only daughter in a land known for its schmoozing and adulterous love affairs. Nonetheless, she was allowed to live away in Chicago and spend her summers alone in Lebanon. She was making her own money and felt like an independent American here, as well. Back then she knew that if they had said â€Å"no,† to this quest she would still find a way to fund her trip and defy her parents. Serena was the type of girl, who had a reputation for always winning, but without Tina accompanying her on her first big journey, the family wouldn’t allow her victory to be totally complete. Serene knew all too well that once they arrived in Rome Center, she and Tina would be living separate lives. While Tina would befriend everyone she possibly could, Serena would resolve to make a few good friends to accompany her in her nightly city adventures. She cleared her throat. She really had to say something. â€Å"Just so you know,† she began. â€Å"You won’t have to check on me every now and then. Do you understand me? † â€Å"I understand you perfectly,† Tina replied in her usual condescending voice reminiscent of old world values. â€Å"This is why we never get along. Don’t worry; I won’t ruin your plans. † â€Å"Trust me, you dont want to. † So a truce was made. Months had passed since that conversation. They were both living separate lives indeed. The two would only be seen together in Dr. Mike Silva’s Philosophy 101 class; even then, they sat on opposite sides of the classroom ignoring each other. Being the belated girl that she was, Serene often came late to class. Serena had always believed in the power of a fashionably late entrance to demonstrate her importance. Although appearing to be the model student, Tina inwardly and occasionally, outwardly, objected to her cousin’s behavior and could not help but be bothered by it. Dr. Silva, otherwise know as Mike to Serene, however, didn’t seem to mind. In fact, he was quite fond of her, in Serena’s mind he believed her to be a perfect model of colonized beauty. After classes, the professor and his protege were always seen having coffee or dinner at Mundelein or at one of the nearby cafes. At least she had someone to talk to that respected her independence and charm. A short time later, it didn’t come much of a surprise when Mike asked her to accompany him to Paris for the holidays. Although Serene had her own plans to go the World Cup, she agreed, since she could not convince anyone to come with her to Germany and would not contemplate asking her conniving cousin. She knew all about the rumors circulating about her and Mike. They simply were weren’t true. She thought of him only as a friend. She was sure that he thought the same of her. However, she knew that if these rumors would circulate further, not only would the University reprimand her, but the whole Chicago Arab community would shun both her and her parents for indecent conduct. She had to ask Tina, although she half expected her to decline the offer. That afternoon, she spent hours preparing Tina’s favorite maamoul, a traditional dish from home. She had to make a peace offering. As she handed it to Tina, the her archenemy looked at her incredulously. â€Å"Do you intend to poison me or something? † Tina asked. â€Å"Just shut up and eat! † She watched Tina eat. She knew Tina longed of at least a piece of home unlike her. She never missed home. â€Å"I want you to come with me and Mike to Paris. † Tina almost choked on one cookie as she heard those words. â€Å"Listen, I intend to come back with my virginity and my reputation intact. Besides, those rumors about he and I aren’t true. † â€Å"Ugh! This is worse than poison. † She said, wiping some sugar on her jeans. â€Å"But alright. I’ll go. Why do you want to go there with him anyway? † Serene turned red with anger, but maybe it was embarrassment. She was sick of everyone asking about her relationship with Mike. â€Å"If I have to answer to one more person, you will see me leaving Rome Center tomorrow! † â€Å"Fine! Leave. That would save me a lot of trouble. † Serene sighed. Tina’s impossible, but at least she agreed. Mike’s office desk was full of clutter. He spent weeks reading the tour books and travel brochures that were scattered on his desk. He thought of throwing them away. He was upset by the message that Serene sent him, excusing herself on the trip to Paris because of several assignments due the week after the holidays. He did not understand that her first refusal was customary of Arabic women, as to not seem so eager to accompany a man on an extended holiday. But, Serena had fully intended to go. He heard a few knocks on his door. When he opened it, he was surprised to find himself Tina, one of his least favorite student standing there. Tina didn’t waste time. â€Å"I had come to ask about the Paris trip agenda, Dr. Silva. I am coming with Serene. † Mike’s feelings of rejection were replaced with outright fury and confusion. Serene failed to mention that her cousin would accompany them. â€Å"Well, I don’t know what you intend on doing in Paris, but Serene and I intend on dedicating an entire day to the Louvre. Dinner will follow at Fouquet’s. Day Two, we will go up the Eiffel Tower and Notre Dame. After that, we will spend more time looking at paintings in Musee DOrsay. Going to the Hotel Invalides is optional. We might try taking the train to Versailles on day three if nothing unfortunate happens. † He memorized the itinerary well, but he didn’t imagine reciting it to this girl. â€Å"I am not quite sure what you had intended on doing in Paris or why you came for that matter, but I respect any decision of Serene’s. † Tina didn’t know how to react. This man was disappointed that she was coming, and he made no effort to hide it. â€Å"Serene feels uncomfortable traveling to a new place alone. † It was a lie. Serene was used to traveling alone. Her attempts at initial rejection were in part customary (though she would never admit it) and similarly to avoid intensifying rumors that could destroy her family and send her packing back home. He was doubtful of Tina‘s revelation, but he decided to let that pass. â€Å"Alright then, Paris can be a dangerous place. Just make sure that you can watch yourself, Ms. Maalouf. † With that, he slammed the door to her face. â€Å"The only person, who I have to watch out for, is you! † She mastered all her self-control so that she wouldn’t say that out loud. It seemed Tina was more intuitive than her cousin would realize. They all arrived in Paris via the Artesia Night train. After checking in their hotel, Serene and Tina prepared to go shopping on Champs Elysees. They decided not to ask Mike, or as Tina referred to him, Dr. Silva, thinking that he would prefer to spend the morning in his bed. They were wrong. Both girls saw him on the downstairs foyer pressuring the receptionist to give him a conjoining room with the girls. His face looked crumpled with disappointment and irritation, but when he saw them, he forcibly flashed a smile. â€Å"Girls, were you planning on leaving without me? † he asked half-jokingly. Tina noted that he was obviously annoyed. Serene noticed it too. â€Å"No, we just figured to do some serious shopping, something you might not be interested in. † She never saw this side of him before. It disappointed her. â€Å"No, I am coming with you,† Mike insisted. Serena felt obligated to pacify the professor. â€Å"Ok then. But I’m afraid it will bore you. Louis Vuitton has nothing to do with history or philosophy. † She continued to downplay his disdain and provided jokes and forced laughter to keep the trip from falling short of her dreamy expectations. Tina remained silent. Perhaps no one will ever know of whatever violent thing she thought of doing to Mike at that moment. Mike was furious. They spent the whole morning shopping along the famous two-kilometer-long avenue. The girls were ready to see the Eiffel Tower next. His plans with Serene were ruined. Tina was to blame. â€Å"The Eiffel Tower is better seen at daytime than at sunset,† he said in his matter-of-fact voice. â€Å"We should wait for tomorrow. † â€Å"We have only three days in Paris. † Serene replied. â€Å"If we are to spend all day tomorrow at the Louvre, I do not think we will have time to see the Eiffel Tower tomorrow morning. † â€Å"You’re right, Serene,† Tina agreed with her for the first time. At that point, Mike lost his patience. â€Å"Your opinion does not matter. † Serene was stunned at Mike’s rude behavior to her cousin. â€Å"How dare you speak to her that way?! † Tina was still family although she never got along with her. Mike realized his mistake. He was worried that his comments would prevent Serene from wanting to spend any time alone with him. â€Å"I’m sorry. I think I just didn’t have enough sleep. † That was a petty excuse. He knew it. Tina knew it and Serene was beginning to realize that Mike was behaving like a spoiled child. â€Å"That is exactly why we choose not call you, but I accept your apology nonetheless. † â€Å"Serene, I am sorry, I did not mean to-† â€Å"The one you should be apologizing to is Tina. † â€Å"Tina, I am sorry. † Tina shrugged. â€Å"Don’t worry. My opinion doesn’t matter anyway. † She decided to do the unthinkable: she would leave Serene and Mike to themselves. Despite Mike’s earlier protests, the pair visited the Eiffel Tower. The view on the Tower’s top floor was truly breathtaking. Serene was awed by the sight of all of Paris glistening beneath her, spreading across to the horizon. No words could completely describe what she saw. No single picture could capture that moment. It was just as she had imagined it, her in all her beauty surrounded by more beauty and her companion, a man who appreciated not only her beauty, but her intellect. Paris was alive. Several times, she had to remind herself that it was real. Mike interrupted her thoughts. He made several comments on the tower’s architecture, its history and its heritage to Paris. She listened intently. He was truly her professor. At that moment, Serene forgot the irritation that he caused her that day. She was grateful to him for taking her to Paris. Without warning, he suddenly kissed her. Serene out of pure reflex, slapped him on the face. â€Å"What are you doing?! † She yelled, astonished, and unaffected by the other travelers around them. â€Å"Doing what one must do in Paris. C’mon Serene, you cannot be blind to this. † â€Å"There has to be some mistake. I saw you only as a professor and a friend, nothing more. I should have listened to Tina. I’m sorry sir. I cannot do what you ask of me. † â€Å"So I risked my reputation, my career, just so you can be better friends with that Tina?! † â€Å"Tina is one of the best people I have known in the entire world. She’s kind to everyone, even me, her enemy. She may not know it, but I have come to admire her. You cannot measure up to who she is to me. † She paused. She couldn’t believe that she just defended Tina against him. â€Å"Please, do not follow me. † She turned to walk away. Mike growled and cursed her. â€Å"Don’t you walk away from me! † He grabbed her arm. Serene clenched her fist. Her punch went straight in his eye, knocking him to the ground. â€Å"I told you not to follow me! † With that, she walked away. Several tourists rolled their heads toward them. The scene was ironically amusing if not romantic. One Korean man even took a video of them in his phone. Serene didn’t care. She was glad to be rid of him. Tina waited at La Jules Verne. She pondered if she had decided right in leaving Serene alone with the monster. A few moments later, her doubts vanished. She was surprised to see Serene back early without Mike. â€Å"Where’s Mike? † she asked. Serene sat down. She turned away to the window. â€Å"I don’t know of any Mike. I simply know a Dr. Silva. He is taking his holiday in Paris as well. We might run into him, but I don’t think will, ever again. † Tina whistled. She realized that Serene had given him a beating worse than she expected. She wanted to congratulate her cousin. â€Å"I hope he won’t flunk the both of us. † With that both girls erupted into a heartfelt laughter that they had shared in a very long time. â€Å"Well, I have decided to drop his class anyway, if you are going to do it with me. How does that sound? † Tina agreed, sealing the pact with a handshake. At last, they had agreed on something. â€Å"You are such a bad influence. † As one relationship came to an end, another presented itself. Paris was a place for romantic love, but the familial love that Serene found again was just as beautiful. She didn’t need Mike’s Philosophy class to understand that. They would carry out the remainder of the Paris trip rekindling their cousinly relationship. They avoided a disheveled Dr. Silva, who they would see frequently muttering to himself or starting a confrontation with the hotel staff. The pair would scamper out of the place with concealed glee and burst into gales of laughter on the Paris street. They didn’t speak of the past misunderstandings they had shares, but instead intuitively knew what had happened there. Serene represented the new world, full of ambiguity and questions. Tina represented the old world with all her wisdom and answers. Together the could navigate through the fog of friendships and loves, enemies and the â€Å"Mikes† of the world. Tina was no longer a chaperone in Serena’s eyes, she was an advisor.