Monday, September 30, 2019
Diversity among individuals, as well as cultures, provides a challenge for nurses when it comes to delivering meaningful health promotion and illness prevention-based education. How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both the nurse and her patients), and teaching methodologies impact the quality of such education? How does understanding a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s view of health promotion and disease prevention guide you in teaching them? Provide an example. Education is impacted any time that the student (patient) does not understand what is being explained, so it is important for the instructor (nurse) to have multiple teaching styles and methodologies to ensure the information is clear and understood. Speaking with patients, while drawing pictures or diagrams, as well as giving them handouts to take home allows you to cover all but one type of learner. Understanding my patientÃ¢â¬â¢s view of health promotion and disease prevention helps guide me to what specific information the patient will need. For example, A 21 year old male who smokes tobacco and has multiple sex partners informs me that he has no desire to quit smoking and refuses you to discuss the matter with me. Attempting to educate this patient on quitting smoking will do harm than good. The patient will be frustrated and possibly angry at me for not respecting his feelings, this could possibly damage our nurse-patient relationship of trust and understanding. In this case I will respect the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s right to smoke and spend my time educating him on sexually transmitted diseases and the importance of safe sex. My 21 year old female tobacco smoker informs me that she would like to quit smoking but is having a hard time. In this situation I would speak with her about her difficulties quitting smoking, fears and anxieties. Provide information regarding medications that are available, programs and resources that are designed to help her, and other options like hypnosis and acupuncture. Understanding and being able to incorporate teaching principles, teaching methodologies, and learning styles are all very important in patient education and health promotion but it will do you little good if you do not have the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s buy in and willingness to change.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Introduction/Rationale Ã¢â¬Å"No person is entitled to consent to have death inflicted on him, and such consent does not affect the criminal responsibility of any person by whom death may be inflicted on the person by whom consent is given. Ã¢â¬ , this is according to the Indiana Code of Criminal Law and Procedure. In ancient days, assisted suicide was frequently seen as a way to preserve oneÃ¢â¬â¢s honor. For the past twenty-five years, on the other hand, the practice has been viewed as a response to the progress of modern medicine. New and often expensive medical technologies have been developed that prolong life. However, the technologies also prolong the dying processes, leading some people to question whether modern medicine is forcing patients to live in unnecessary pain when there is no chance they will be cured. Despite the changes in modern medicine, the attitudes toward assisted suicide in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s courts and legislatures have not altered considerably. Debate over assisted suicide nearly always centers on the Ã¢â¬Å"slippery slopeÃ¢â¬ argument. This argument holds that permitting one behavior will lead to a series of increasingly dangerous behaviors. Critics argue that if voluntary assisted suicide is legalized for competent, terminally ill adults, the acceptance of involuntary euthanasia for incompetent, elderly, or uninsured people will follow. Assisted-suicide advocates contend that the slippery-slope argument is fallacious. They argue that legalizing assisted suicide would not place patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ right to life at risk because America is founded on democratic values that would ensure the rights of all citizens. Assisted Suicide is defined as an attempt to take one's own life with the intentional assistance of another person. It is a form of euthanasia in which a person wishes to commit suicide but feels unable to perform the act alone because of a physical disability or lack of knowledge about the most effective means. An individual who assists a suicide victim in accomplishing that goal may or may not be held responsible for the death, depending on local laws. The participation of health professionals, especially physicians, in assisted suicide is controversial. Nowadays, assisted suicide is still debatable if it will be legalized or not. However, in Philippines, since it is a religious country. Assisted suicide remains prohibited for no one can take away oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life except God and it is clearly stated in the Ten Commandments, Ã¢â¬ËThou shall not killÃ¢â¬â¢. Assisted Suicide or Physician-assisted suicide has its proponents and its opponents. Among the opponents are some physicians who believe it violates the fundamental principle of medicine and believe that doctors should not assist in suicides because to do so is incompatible with the doctor's role as a healer. Physician-assisted suicide is often abbreviated PAS. It is called doctor-assisted suicide in the UK. The debate over whether assisted suicide should be legalized in the United StatesÃ¢â¬âa nation considerably larger and more diverse than the NetherlandsÃ¢â¬âis not likely to be resolved in the near future. People on both sides of the issue will undoubtedly pay close attention to developments in Oregon, and perhaps other states, in an effort to bolster their side of the slippery-slope argument. Body Many have argued that it would be worse, morally speaking, for health care professionals to engage in assisted suicide, than others because it would weaken the basic values of the health professions. Others argue that these values include providing relief from suffering and that there are rare times when death is the only means of achieving this goal. Germany actually accepts assisted suicide but is against euthanasia, largely because of the issue of patient control. If the patient is performing, the action that leads to death it is more likely that this was a voluntary choice for the patient. Thus, there is less risk of abuse. Many people thought that assisted suicide and euthanasia is the same but the truth is these two terms are completely different from the other. The main difference between assisted suicide and euthanasia is that in assisted suicide the patient is in complete control of the process that leads to death because he/she is the person who performs the act of suicide. The other person simply helps for example, providing the means for carrying out the action. In the US, only the State of Oregon permits assisted suicide or physician-assisted suicide. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act allows terminally ill state residents to receive prescriptions for self-administered lethal medications from their physicians. It does not ermit euthanasia, in which a physician or other person directly administers a medication to a patient in order to end his or her life. The Oregon law allows adults with terminal diseases who are likely to die within 6 months to obtain lethal doses of drugs from their doctors. A relatively very small number of people sought lethal drugs under the law and even fewer people who actually used them. Many patients have said that what they want most is a choice about how their lives will end, Ã¢â¬Å"a finger on the remote control, as it were. Ã¢â¬ Like for instance, the case of Diane, one of the patients of Dr. Timothy Quill. She was diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia and she was under Dr. Quill for a period of 8 years. Dr. Quill informed her of the diagnosis, and of the possible treatments. The series of treatments include multiple sessions of chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant, accompanied by an array of ancillary treatments, in which the rate of survival is only 25% and it is very hard to find a bone marrow donor that will perfectly match her bone marrow type. Upon knowing, she decided to control the time of her death and informed Dr. Quill so that she could avoid the loss of dignity and discomfort, which will proceed to her death. She called Dr. Quill for barbiturates complaining for her insomnia. Dr. Quill gave her a prescription of the amount to take to make her sleep and the amount she will take to commit suicide. Few days after, Diane called her friends including Dr. Quill and say goodbye. Two days after Diane took away her life after they met. This is an amazing example of a case study of an assisted suicide, which really shows the difference between assisted-suicide from euthanasia. Analysis/AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s Discussion Approaching the problem of suffering among the dying through the lens of assisted suicide is like looking through the wrong end of binoculars; it narrows and distorts the view. My focus is in reducing the conditions that make assisted suicide seem an attractive alternative to patients facing the prospect of living with an incurable illness and to society struggling to care for the dying. Success will not come with making assisted suicide legal, but rather with making them unnecessary. According to Dr. Ira Byock, as a doctor, his commitment is to do everything possible and anything that is necessary to alleviate a personÃ¢â¬â¢s suffering. In the very rare situations in which physical distress is extreme, it is always possible to provide comfort through sedation. I firmly agree with Dr. Byock for the main role of a doctor is to save life and to heal the sick not to kill or take away peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. The difference between what Dr. Byock do from euthanasia is that palliative care does whatever is necessary to alleviate the suffering while euthanasia is focused on eliminating the sufferer. As a Catholic, being a tool to take away oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life is a mortal sin and assisted suicide was never accepted as a legal practice here in Philippines. But for me, I disagree in the practice of assisted suicide and it will always be wrong to help in taking away peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives no matter what the reason it will be. Still assisted suicide remains debatable and still a lot of cases are still on-going. Conclusion Assisted suicide brings out some of the deepest feelings amongst human beings. It is a hard decision that nobody wishes to take, and is the power over life and death. Is killing a terminally ill patient justifiable? Who determines the worth of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life? God or human? The answer to this question varies, as there are many points of view to this controversial issue. Thus, assisted suicide is a form of suicide, which involves a person other than the person taking his or her own life. And during which the other person assists in direct or indirect physical means in giving effect to the suicide or, in the event of a statutory definition, in a manner as set out in that statute. The right to assisted suicide is a significant topic that concerns people all over the world. The debates go back and forth, about whether a dying patient has the right to die with assistance of a physician or other person. Some are against it because of religious and moral reasons. Others are for it because of their compassion and respect for the dying. Some physicians and Christians are also divided on the issue. They differ where they place the line that separates relief from dying and killing. Those among us, who think we would want assisted suicide if we were sick, should ask ourselves whether that is also what we would want for our lover, sister, brother, or child who was incurably ill. Would we want them to die quickly, so that they would not become a burden to us? If not, we need to look deeply into what Ã¢â¬Å"successÃ¢â¬ would look like in this time of living we call dying. Recommendations Ã¢â¬ ¢I acclaim not to legalized assisted suicide for as a Christian, to help in taking away oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life is always a mistake. Since our role as a steward of the earth is to preserve our lives. Ã¢â¬ ¢We expect physicians to heal and preserve life, not to kill on request. I want to be able to trust my doctor to do what is best for me in every situation by not doing illegal stuffs like assisting suicide. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Since, assisted suicide is a moral issue, I recommend that it has to be resolved on the basis of principles we use to deal with every other question about right and wrong, not a special case. Depression, when present, should be treated. I endorse that patients should be given sufficient time and counseling to enable them to make sure their decision represents their deepest wishes. But at some point we have to decide whether patients are to be permitted to be the authors of their own destiny or not. Ã¢â¬ ¢The option of Ã¢â¬Å"self Ã¢â¬â deliveranceÃ¢â ¬ should not be taken for granted for some might take advantage of it especially the mentally ill people who would grab the opportunity to decide when to end their lives. Bibliography: http://medical-dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/assisted+suicide http://www. duhaime. org/LegalDictionary/A/AssistedSuicide. aspx Criminal Code of Canada, Revised Statutes of Canada 1985, Chapter C-46 http://www. dyingwell. org http://www. pages. drexel. edu/~cp28/euth1. htm http://www. oppapers. com/essays/Physician-Assisted-Suicide-Case-Study/38054 The Ethics of Assisted Death: When Life Becomes a Burden too Hard to Bear (Lima, OH: CSS Publishing Co. , 1999). http://www. enotes. com/assisted-suicide-article
Saturday, September 28, 2019
In the economy, the demand from consumers and the production costs will help guide and form a firm structure. Many health care organizations need to use good thinking tasks to make proper decisions. More issues include: patient autonomy, termination of patient treatment, advance directives, confidentiality, and informed consent. Back in the day, hospitals received charitable donations from internal sources of the community. Hospitals are thriving in developing new technology and new science. The price of the new technology for the findings that have sky rocketed and can create future financial concern. The development of new technology can broaden the areas for treatment and if they have the correct tools to perform treatment, then they will get to experience the cost of it as well. With having the new technology in most organizations, patientÃ¢â¬â¢s will receive less one on one time with the doctors to ask questions. I have noticed this through a personal experience of mine. I remember I would be in the doctors forever when I was a little girl and nowadays, I am usually in there for a quick visit. The patients pay a lot of money to receive less guidance from your doctor or though it may seem. Paying for health insurance s definitely a costly additive for the patient and does not get any cheaper to carry coverage on their family. Issues with the new technology and science will create more training and certification. This will be an additional cost to the health care facility of where they are introducing the new technology equipment. This can also cause staff to be less interacti ve with their patients because they are focusing on the new programs, equipment, ect. Although, the cost will be noticeable now, but once training and the proper use of equipment is learned, the facility will be saving money in the end. New sciences can develop more jobs and may also create the areas to have a more trained professional who has a distinct job description of the study of the issue. Patient autonomy is where the patients have a right to decide for their own medical care. This decision should not include an influential decision made by the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health care provider but the health care provider is allowed to educate their patients about their possible concerns. The termination of a patient could simply be because the provider may be relocating or retiring. There are cases where a managed care plan may no longer be taking the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s insurance coverage. The physician needs to follow the correct steps in order to terminate a patient from their facility because if the physician does not follow the proper steps, then they may run into ethical issues if the patient isnÃ¢â¬â¢t given a reasonable cause for this action. An advance health care directive is a written statement of how the patient is wanting to receive treatment in case of a severe injury, illness, or incapacitated which will cause the patient not being able to make their own decisions. It is also known as a Living Will which will help the family members know what their loved ones wanted in case this happened. One of the most critical issues is confidentiality. It is the physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s role to keep the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical information kept between the physician and patients. Full disclosure of patient information can help the physician diagnose medical conditions with the proper treatment. The only way the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s information may be distributed is by signing a consent form to release their personal information. Informed consent is giving a medical professional consent to perform a procedure or a test that is needed for a health concern. The language on the document of an informed consent must be understood and readable for the patient. Once they have finished reading the document, then a signature from the patient is required because of they perform a procedure that could cause medical harm during it. The patient could go back and sue the facility for not properly following their regulations. In the consent for the patient, there should be statements describing the certain procedure of what the physicians will be performing. The informed consent needs to be given during a specific time frame before the procedure. In conclusion, these ethical issues can be prevented with the proper training of the field. Proper training will lead to better quality of care and safe practices within an organization. The cost of health care will still be an issue down the road because the technology and the new findings of diseases will continue to increase. Following rules and regulations will help organizations grow in a positive setting. It is important for all facilities to become known to a comfortable structure so that they are financially set for any new changes. New changes donÃ¢â¬â¢t only benefit the doctors but it also benefits the patient that is receiving the treatment. References 1. Mariner, W. (1995). Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. Ã¢â¬Å"Business versus Medical Ethics: Conflicting Standards for Managed CareÃ¢â¬ pg. 237. http://www. jblearning. com/samples/076374526X/4526X_CH14_235_250. pdf 2. Allison, David, Arch, D. , Uriel Cohen. (2009). The Center for Health Design. Critical Issues in Healthcare Environments. http://www. healthdesign. org/chd/research/critical-issues-healthcare-environments A Critical Regulatory Issue in Health Care In the economy, the demand from consumers and the production costs will help guide and form a firm structure. Many health care organizations need to use good thinking tasks to make proper decisions. More issues include: patient autonomy, termination of patient treatment, advance directives, confidentiality, and informed consent. Back in the day, hospitals received charitable donations from internal sources of the community. Hospitals are thriving in developing new technology and new science. The price of the new technology for the findings that have sky rocketed and can create future financial concern. The development of new technology can broaden the areas for treatment and if they have the correct tools to perform treatment, then they will get to experience the cost of it as well. With having the new technology in most organizations, patientÃ¢â¬â¢s will receive less one on one time with the doctors to ask questions. I have noticed this through a personal experience of mine. I remember I would be in the doctors forever when I was a little girl and nowadays, I am usually in there for a quick visit. The patients pay a lot of money to receive less guidance from your doctor or though it may seem. Paying for health insurance s definitely a costly additive for the patient and does not get any cheaper to carry coverage on their family. Issues with the new technology and science will create more training and certification. This will be an additional cost to the health care facility of where they are introducing the new technology equipment. This can also cause staff to be less interacti ve with their patients because they are focusing on the new programs, equipment, ect. Although, the cost will be noticeable now, but once training and the proper use of equipment is learned, the facility will be saving money in the end. New sciences can develop more jobs and may also create the areas to have a more trained professional who has a distinct job description of the study of the issue. Patient autonomy is where the patients have a right to decide for their own medical care. This decision should not include an influential decision made by the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health care provider but the health care provider is allowed to educate their patients about their possible concerns. The termination of a patient could simply be because the provider may be relocating or retiring. There are cases where a managed care plan may no longer be taking the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s insurance coverage. The physician needs to follow the correct steps in order to terminate a patient from their facility because if the physician does not follow the proper steps, then they may run into ethical issues if the patient isnÃ¢â¬â¢t given a reasonable cause for this action. An advance health care directive is a written statement of how the patient is wanting to receive treatment in case of a severe injury, illness, or incapacitated which will cause the patient not being able to make their own decisions. It is also known as a Living Will which will help the family members know what their loved ones wanted in case this happened. One of the most critical issues is confidentiality. It is the physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s role to keep the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical information kept between the physician and patients. Full disclosure of patient information can help the physician diagnose medical conditions with the proper treatment. The only way the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s information may be distributed is by signing a consent form to release their personal information. Informed consent is giving a medical professional consent to perform a procedure or a test that is needed for a health concern. The language on the document of an informed consent must be understood and readable for the patient. Once they have finished reading the document, then a signature from the patient is required because of they perform a procedure that could cause medical harm during it. The patient could go back and sue the facility for not properly following their regulations. In the consent for the patient, there should be statements describing the certain procedure of what the physicians will be performing. The informed consent needs to be given during a specific time frame before the procedure. In conclusion, these ethical issues can be prevented with the proper training of the field. Proper training will lead to better quality of care and safe practices within an organization. The cost of health care will still be an issue down the road because the technology and the new findings of diseases will continue to increase. Following rules and regulations will help organizations grow in a positive setting. It is important for all facilities to become known to a comfortable structure so that they are financially set for any new changes. New changes donÃ¢â¬â¢t only benefit the doctors but it also benefits the patient that is receiving the treatment. References 1. Mariner, W. (1995). Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. Ã¢â¬Å"Business versus Medical Ethics: Conflicting Standards for Managed CareÃ¢â¬ pg. 237. http://www. jblearning. com/samples/076374526X/4526X_CH14_235_250. pdf 2. Allison, David, Arch, D. , Uriel Cohen. (2009). The Center for Health Design. Critical Issues in Healthcare Environments. http://www. healthdesign. org/chd/research/critical-issues-healthcare-environments
Friday, September 27, 2019
Is surgery a good option for people to lose weight - Essay Example discuss the different types of weight loss surgery available and highlight the associated risks and complications compared to the contemporary alternatives. To begin with, the history of weight loss surgery dates back to the 1960s when it was initially done through a loop configuration. This initial technique presented a problem of bile reflux to the patients who underwent the procedure (American Society for Metabolic& Bariatric Surgery [ASMBS], (n.d)). This method left the patient with a much larger stomach making the bile to enter the esophagus and the upper part of the stomach a condition termed as bile reflux. Bile reflux can result in the destruction of the mucosal lining of the esophagus hence altering the physiological functions of the layer (Sifrim, 2013). This prompted the surgeons to carry out a research to improve on the procedure. Over the years, the procedure has been improved with invention of different alternatives of the procedure including the famous Ã¢â¬Å"Roux-en-YÃ¢â¬ bypass (ASMBS n.d). However, it is worth noting that the existing alternatives to the weight loss surgery seem to have less side effects or complications associated with them. Dieting for example has been in existence for a very long time even before the invention of weight loss surgery. Dieting involves daily monitoring of the type of foods consumed by the person intending to reduce weight. The only challenge of dieting procedure is that patients may be forced to consume foods which they are not used to or they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like. On the other hand, exercising is also an alternative to the weight loss surgery. Exercising has been used as a method to reduce weight in individuals for many years before the invention of other programmed techniques like well designed dieting pattern as well as surgical procedures. As opposed to the surgical procedure, less amount of money is spend to acquire resources needed for exercising making the method more popular among people who are have less
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Motivation - Essay Example Most of these theories build on the work of Abraham Maslow conducted in the 1940's. His studies into human personality included attempts to understand motivation. He organized a list of five levels of motivation in order of importance from physiological through safety, love, and esteem to the top level of self-actualization. At the physiological level, people are concerned with obtaining their physical needs - food, air, water, and shelter. At the safety level, the concern shifts to protecting and supporting the family. While love can refer to the kind of romantic relationship most people think when they see the work, in Maslow's hierarchy of needs model it refers to the need to be accepted as a member of a group. Esteem and self-actualization may seem like the same thing, but esteem refers to having a sense of self-respect while self-actualization refers to the development of wisdom (Maslow, 1987). Ã¢â¬Å"MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate conclusion that the highest levels of self-actualizat ion are transcendent in their nature may be one of his most important contributions to the study of human behavior and motivationÃ¢â¬ (Daniels, cited in Huitt, 2004). In most illustrations of this model, the various stages are represented as individual steps on a pyramid of possibility with physical needs at the base and self-actualization at the peak. The reason for this depiction is due to Maslow's belief that all of the elements in one level must be achieved before the individual can move on to the next level. It is important to have this history, because it forms the base upon which or against which later theorist worked. Working in the late 1950's and 1960's, Frederick Herzberg built his two-factor theory from Maslow's model trying to learn new ways to motivate employees. He discovered that employees were not motivated just by having their low-level needs met and suggested employers who wanted to improve performance should work to also address high-level motivators. Ã¢â¬Å"M otivator or intrinsic factors, such as achievement and recognition, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as pay and job security, produce job dissatisfactionÃ¢â¬ (Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman, 1959). Although he renamed and grouped the levels into hygiene and motivator macro-levels, the same basic levels from Maslow can be discovered within as physiology and safety needs become hygiene and esteem and self-actualization become motivators. Organizations employing Herzberg's theory understand pay increases, bonuses, and other inducements related to the job intended to satisfy low-level needs will not motivate workers. Instead, just focusing on meeting these needs tends to encourage employees to seek employment elsewhere. Organisations such as Tesco base their operations on this theory, giving employees a chance to participate in decision-making, holding forums to gain employee input, and encouraging strong organisation-wide communication. These are all strat egies designed to meet high-level needs such as belonging, esteem,
Radiohead and Kid A - Research Paper Example Band leader Thom Yorke commented that the album simply reflected the music the band was mainly listening to at the time they were creating the album, though there is evident an obvious attempt to depart from the bandÃ¢â¬â¢s previous Ã¢â¬ËrockÃ¢â¬â¢ style. There are evident influences from synthesised bands such as Aphex Twin, Talking Heads and jazz artists such as Charles Mingus and Miles Davis. Some songs, particularly Ã¢â¬ËHow to DisappearÃ¢â¬â¢, contain heavy classical influences. Ã¢â¬ËMotion Picture SoundtrackÃ¢â¬â¢ is a particular example of the bandÃ¢â¬â¢s new direction, and experimenting with minimal sound yet varied instruments, as well as new and old styles. The albumÃ¢â¬â¢s style is certainly a new direction from the bandÃ¢â¬â¢s older albums, and it perhaps symbolises the bandÃ¢â¬â¢s injection of personal influences into their musical style. Concepts Behind the Album Radiohead experimented with the music of Kid A, and its comparison to earlier albums s hows a distinct move from their usual Ã¢â¬Ëalternative rockÃ¢â¬â¢ style to a more electronic music style (Gilbert). For this album, Radiohead experimented with a broader range of musical instruments; a rather different approach compared to their previous focus on the use of guitars. Radiohead incorporated the use of keyboards, brass and strings Ã¢â¬â a depiction of their classical music and jazz influences. The music contains less use of lyrics than previous albums, and the lyrics that the band does use are more conceptual and theoretical than the lyrics they had created before. Many described Kid A as an evolution of the band: Ã¢â¬Å"their core sound had changedÃ¢â¬ (Koehler 193). Perhaps the success of Kid A is owed to its new sound; the inability to slot it into any one musical genre, as Kaye claims: Ã¢â¬Å"the album is a motley painting of many types of music, mixed and bended in playful and satirical ways, that cannot be boxed into any neat compartment (sic)Ã¢â¬ (241). Perhaps the most prominent feature of Kid AÃ¢â¬â¢s music style is YorkeÃ¢â¬â¢s adamant departure from rock; he claimed Ã¢â¬Å"I never wanted to be in a...rock groupÃ¢â¬ (Lin 32). One can hear the bandÃ¢â¬â¢s avoidance of producing yet another Ã¢â¬Ëalternative rockÃ¢â¬â¢ album, and the experimentation they undertook, although it is mainly synthesised and electronic, cannot be particularly classed as any single genre. It seems that the band achieved this goal very successfully. Tension Among the Band Led to this Album The problems faced by the band, particularly Thom York e leading up to and during the creation of the album are certainly not few and far between. There was not only tension in the band, but Yorke had begun to feel alienated from the fast paced life of the rest of the world, as well as feeling that his music had become mainstream and unimportant (Ã¢â¬ËMeeting People is EasyÃ¢â¬â¢). Yorke shunned media attention which had been created as a result of RadioheadÃ¢â¬â¢s success, and the exhausted band almost split up before the making of Kid A. The main problems facing the band as a whole, however, were due to the constant disagreements which arose between the members as to the musical style the album should be based on. The main tension was between YorkeÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to inject electronic music into the bandÃ¢â¬â¢s style and the rest of the bandÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to remain with the guitar Ã¢â¬Ërock-pop-alternativeÃ¢â¬â¢ style. As a result of the conglomerated problems, Yorke faced many difficulties while trying to write songs
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Professional Practice - Case Study Example presents an interesting case due to its initiation stages and a number of challenges that it has gone through to the current level where it is not only the art, but also the great spots that are located at different places in the island which acts as the attractive features. The Naoshima project presents a case that is comparable to other projects which have been carried out in the recent past. The comparable project, in this case, is the architectural design practice that I have set up with my fellow Cambridge post-graduate, and the practice has received potential clients since its initiation and has closed down on a number of deals most of which have given the practice a stable workload and are similar to the Naoshima island project. The project that has been carried out by the practice is similar to the Naoshima project because they both have features that have made them notable and identified within the historical timeline. The identifiable elements between the two projects includes their similar method of construction and building materials, and other elements such as the form that has been adopted in the construction process. The style that has been adopted in the architectural designs being carried out can be described as post-modern. The architectural designs have included changes being carried out gradually as a way of allowing architects to adapt to the new ideas, and these styles have on several occasions been a rebellion of the styles that had existed before. The case of Naoshima Island involved a proposal that was made which entailed an agreement being reached to allow modern architectural practices to be applied and turn the island into an attractive site for tourism due to the establishment of the many contemporary museums2. The changes had the sleepy fishing community being turned into a home of impressive art collection that turned the place into an attractive site for touring. The analysis of the Naoshima Island compares to the project that has
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Week 3 Discussion Questions and Participation Questions - Essay Example Group data refers to data that is illustrated in the form of a range such as 20-50. Ungrouped data shows single numbers such as 20,21,30,42. A good graphical technique to illustrate the prices of homes in a particular region is a bar graph. The bar graph can illustrate the different prices of homes in the area. The reason I choose a bar chart is because it reflects categorical data. Below is an example of a bar chart with five home prices ($100000, $150000, $200000, $175000, and $250000). The basic formula used in a regression analysis is y = a + bx. In this formula the y represents the dependent variable. This variable is subject to the independent variables to find the result of the equation. The dependent variable cannot be controlled, but the result is influenced by the values of the independent variable or variables. If the formula illustrated above had multiple independent variables the regression formula would be a multiple regression. Ã¢â¬Å"In mathematics the independent variable is one whose value does not depend on any other variableÃ¢â¬ (Wisegeek, 2010). In the formula mentioned above the X represent the independent variable. B is the slope of the regression line, while A represents the intercept point of the regression line and the y axis. Regression analysis is a tool that is very useful due to the fact that it allows managers to forecast information. Once the regression equation is created the user can alter the independent variable in order to fore cast something based on the model. The slope tells us how inclined is the regression line. An application that managers can use is forecasting its sales. The manager would have to input the sales of the company for multiple past periods such as ten years. Once the data is input into the linear regression the manager can forecast the future sales of the company. Regression analysis can be extremely useful to forecast any type of business data. Managers have a need to forecast the future due to the fact
Monday, September 23, 2019
Purchasing from local farmers can be beneficial to the environment - Essay Example It has been estimated that food travels 1800 miles on the average (Jackson, 2008) when it is being delivered from the farms to the market. These farms are usually located in other countries that grow certain kinds of food. This 1800 mile travel can give at least 800 kgs of CO2 emissions per travel (Webber and Matthews, 2008). If the food is sourced from a local farm, which is nearer to the market and it would not be imported, it would not contribute much to the CO2 emissions of the food, because less transportation would be involved. Because of this, local farmers can be a great help in providing a sustainable alternative when it comes to marketing farm produce, and at the same time, prove beneficial to the environment. As said before, most foods in the market these days are imported from different countries. According to an article by Andy Jerardo, almost 15% of foods in the markets of the United States are imported. This rate rises continually (Brooks, et al). This means that the i mported food travel at least a thousand miles to get to the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ tables. Because of that mileage, transportation takes a huge part in the marketing of foods. At the same time, the impact of transportation is big when it comes to computing a foodÃ¢â¬â¢s carbon emissions. It is known that the carbon emission of food starts in farms, especially if livestock is the one being farmed. Since the CO2 emissions from beef and poultry are already big, adding CO2 emissions from the transportation needed from the farm to the market route is already a big factor when considering the impact of food in the environment. Therefore, if the farms are locally available, it is more logical for the people to buy there if they are actually conscious of their environment. This is because nearer farms mean low transportation costs and low carbon emissions. Low transportation costs and emissions mean cheaper food and less environmental stress. Local farming also ensures sustainable economy for farming. Since local farmers are, nearer, with figures playing within 100-150 miles from the food source to the table, the taxes that consumers pay when they buy the produce would ultimately go back to the consumers. Helping the local farms is also a good way to support the local economy since it helps in keeping the money within the market. It does not go out from the local territory, unlike in importation where the consumer pays the farmers from other countries from which the food is imported. Having a healthy local economy is good since it lessens our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s dependence to other countries, making the nation stronger. Another point to ponder is that local farming is also beneficial to the health of consumers, not only to the environment. It is logical: since the farms are near, the food is delivered fresh because the food does not spend days, even weeks, in a boat or truck to get transported from point A to point B. It is basically like picking foods right from your own ba ckyard. The sellers also get a reduced packaging costs and storing time because these foods have a great turnover. Having local farms are also a good way in preserving a regionÃ¢â¬â¢s distinct culture. Since food is an extension of culture, it is inevitable for a local place not to have their own food that gives them their own unique identity. Importation with their foreign flavors, generally overtake the local culture when it comes to food. Having local far
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Promotional Material Essay Before we created our promotional materials such as posters, leaflets and flyers, we had to make sure that we were able to find a suitable price in which we can budget according to our finances. During our research, we were able to locate a suitable printing agency in which we could print our promotional materials in bulk, so we could hand out in the local area to help promote the business. The advantage of the agency we chose for printing our material was that they were able to print our promotional materials within 2 working days and that any deliveries that took place could be tracked on the website when u log on to it, this to make sure that the delivery is going according to plan. By selecting the amount we though would be appropriate for this campaign, we were able to locate the price in which it would cost us as an advertising agency if that amount were to be printed out. Promotional Material Leaflets We used leaflets to ensure customers the products that the cafÃ © will be selling in their local cafÃ ©. The leaflet we designed had a bright Italian background (in the form of the Italy colours), indicating immediately to the consumer that the cafÃ © is Italian based, which is probably the most important factor to inform the customer about. We made sure that the leaflet was specifically designed and had the relevant information such as the location of the cafÃ © and the products that the cafÃ © were going to sell. This is vital to clear as misleading customers about products that the cafÃ © doesnt sell could lead to the business losing customers. We also had to include contact information so that customers could maybe phone in the cafÃ © to order food or to see whether the cafÃ © is open. We used pictures so that consumers are able to get a feel of some of the products that the cafÃ © has on offer. We placed this on the front (main) side of the leaflet so that it is eye cat ching to the consumer as soon as they see the leaflet. We made 1500 printout leaflets as they can be easily distributed around the local area and are the most common method of promotion used by a business of a similar stature. Leaflets could be posted through letter boxers to the people around the local area so it increases the chance of the consumer actually noticing and reading the leaflet This can help achieve the business objectives of achieving 30 customers daily as by using this type of promotion, in the form of leaflets, the business is virtually trying to attract more customers to shop at the cafÃ © and build more customer awareness of the cafÃ ©. If the business has more customers, they could achieve their aim of breaking even in the first year. However, a drawback of using a leaflet was that it proved to be the most costly in terms of production as we were charged at 11p per leaflet. Posters The posters we designed were again Italian based but had to limit the amount of information we could put on the poster due to lack of space. This was one of the drawbacks of using a poster but could be just as effective as using the leaflet. However, the production of the poster was the cheapest at just 4.5 per poster. This came at a surprise as we thought that the poster was to be more expensive than the rest of the promotional material. The content we had on the poster had o be very basic but had to send the message across to consumers of the products that the cafÃ © may sell if they came to visit. The drawback of creating a poster was that it was very time consuming as first we had to make a draft copy, then were we able to form the main copy in which was going to be used for distribution. The use of pictures made it more eyes catching for the consumer and the contents that were stated were the basic products that the cafÃ © were going to sell. The reason behind this decision was that we believed that consumers would be more likely to read a poster that had a limited amount of writing on the poster rather than having a jammed pack poster full of writing and fewer pictures. By just stating the important points and more use of pictures proved to be more eye catching for us and potential consumers. This could help achieve the aims of this organisation as students and working class people could notice this poster when they shop at local newsagents or public areas when they go to work or college. Although these wont be distributed to houses like leaflets, they will be situated at public areas such as on buses or some of the local shops nearby. This would increase customer awareness of the business on a whole or be a drawback as some people like the elderly who do not shop as often as other student are more likely to miss the poster rather than students who walk past on a day to day basis.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Human resource management and Employee Voice Employee Voice Ensures Effective Performance Introduction Talking from the perspective of Human Resource Management (HRM), Employee Voice (EV) signifies the involvement of employees in organizational decision making. EV is an offshoot of the Participative Management Model which aims at achieving corporate goals through management-employee harmony. The chief ingredients of EV are Employee Participation and Employee Involvement. From the works of many management scholars it has been observed that though EV is a growing management concept, it has to go a long way before being universally accepted as a management practice. According to a research report, very few managers consider EV from the viewpoint of collective representation, though many are of the opinion that it contributes towards organisational performance (CIPD, 2001 P. 19). The concept is based on collective decision making by management and employees. Though its very difficult to implement this idea in a bureaucratic structure, a participative management can very well adopt it provided it is open to the idea of sharing decision making status with subordinates. In the course of this report I will try to justify the premise whether Employee Voice is a prerequisite to ensure effective performance of employees as well as that of organisations. Definition of Employee Voice Though it doesnt have any formal definition, Employee Voice has been explained in different ways by various scholars. While some of them have opined that it is a collection of employee activities that intend to forcefully modify the management policies and practices, others have suggested that it is a voluntary expression of employees ideas that aim at influencing organisational activities (Greenberg Edwards, 2009 P. 25-26). As has been conceptualised by some managers, EV may be defined as enhanced employee communications that facilitates exchange of opinions and ideas and upward problem-solving through collective representation and commitment (CIPD, 2001 P. 20). Purposes of Employee Voice The general purposes that Employee Voice serves in an organisation are as the following: Ã § Expression of employee dissatisfaction. This helps in solving problems with the management and also helps in maintain good relations. Ã § Collective expression helps in providing management with countervailing power. Ã § Employees contribute to the decision making process thereby make their requirements clear to the management. Ã § Mutual harmony is harnessed through EV. This in turn secures viability of the employees as well as the organisation (Armstrong, 2006 P. 808). From the purposes mentioned above, it is clear that EV contributes towards the overall growth of the organisation and also helps in enhancing its development in terms of work environment, quality and, above all, productivity. Owing to these facts, EV should be patronised by the management and it should also be ensured that employees feel free to voluntarily express their ideas and expectations on a regular basis. The management should also take measures to put the information generated from EV to the best use of the organisation in order to develop it on a regular basis. Classification of Employee Voice Employee Voice has immense corporate significance from the perspective of Industrial Democracy (ID) (Hyman Mason, 1995 P. 1-2). Generally, EV stems into two organizational phenomena Employee Participation (EP) and Employee Involvement (EI). Employee Participation Employee Participation can be conceptualised as the management initiatives which attract the employees to participate voluntarily in organisational activities through various awards and rewards. EP is manifested in the following ways: Employee Ownership Through various schemes, employees can hold shares of the organization and thus enjoy the usual rights of a shareholder (Lee, 1991 P. 2-5). This enhances the mutual responsibilities of both the organization and employees. On account of being shareholders, employees perform optimally towards greater scales of organisational success as that would reflect in their individual value as well. Ã¢â¬Å"ESOPs in the U.S. and U.K. are frequently cited as having a triad of objectives: to broaden the ownership base, stimulate investment and improve performanceÃ¢â¬ (Lee, 1991 P. 4). Profit Sharing This is generally done in the form of payment of bonus in proportion to the organizations annual profit. This is a form of employee incentive which intends to enhance employees commitment (Lee, 1991 P. 5-6). Employee Involvement As the name suggests, the objective of Employee Involvement is to involve employees to a greater extent in the administrative activities of the organization. This helps in empowering the employees and also enlightens them to understand the corporate policies and activities in a better light. EI facilitates the psychological divide between employer and employees and endows the latter with some degree of decision making capacity. It has two major benefits firstly, through empowerment and decentralization the management is relieved of some portion of its administrative responsibilities and secondly, on being empowered the employees responsibility for organizational success increases and so does their accountability and commitment. EI also helps in uplifting employee morale and job satisfaction. Thus it enhances performance (Schafer Economic Policy Institute, 1996 P. 126-128). Workers Participation in Decision Making This is a self explanatory method of Employee Involvement in which a decentralised and participative management seeks employees contribution towards organizational decision making. It increases transparency and also enables both the employer and employees to identify and respect their mutual expectations. The objectives of EI are manifested through Quality Circles, Production Teams, Employee Directorship and Workers Council (Lee, 1991 P. 7). Employees Perception of Voice Employees generally feel threatened by a common notion that the management uses them as mere resources without any concern for their personal enrichment. They are also driven by the fear of losing their jobs. It is irrespective of the size and nature of the organisation, that employees are worried about job security and career development. EV gives the employees a common platform for uniting and conveying their views. Hence, employees primarily perceive EV as a mode of expression which helps them in sending across their message to the management. Managements View towards Employee Voice Though Employee Voice has been conceptualised through the works of various management authors, it is yet to gain global importance. The success of EV depends to a great extent on the management style (Dundon Rollinson, 2004 P. 57). Managements openness towards accepting EV as a developmental tool is crucial in shaping its outcomes. If and only if management encourages employees to voice their opinions and fosters a feeling of interdependence, the employees can express their ideas. The managers should also utilize the voice mechanisms in order to making their decision making easier. It is apparent that unless a proper participative management model is implemented in an organization, it is difficult for the managers to fully appreciate the importance of EV. It can come into being only when a company works towards achieving industrial democracy (Boxall, Boxall, Purcell Wright, 2007 P. 231-233). United We Stand, Divided We Fall This is the fundamental paradigm behind Employee Voice. The management should brace itself to decentralise power and control and should take employees ideas into serious consideration because the latters contribution toward organisational throughput is immense. Owing to fact that employees are invaluable resources, it is just to empower them so that they may provide the management with finer ingredients to enhance performance. It has been largely suggested that healthy labour relations plays an important role in shaping organisational productivity (Pfeffer, 1998 P. 228). Participative management has been proven to be the healthiest of management styles owing to the fact that it though employee empowerment, it enhances the speed of communication and thus other organisational processes are also enhanced proportionally. Employee Voice and Organizational Performance Generally, lack of proper communication leads to organisational conflicts. Employee Voice helps in bettering employer-employee relationship through information flow. It has been observed that though different measures of Employee Participation and Employee Involvement are necessary for organisational performance, management employee interrelationship plays an equally important role in enhancing job satisfaction and hence in enhancing organisational productivity (Brown Heywood, 2002 P. 103). In the context of EV, we may also analyse the psychological contracts that are involved with employment. Management employee interrelationships are largely based upon exchange of services and compensation. This often leads the employees psyche to be uncooperative with the managements growth strategies. The situation can be made favourable through a synergistic relationship that will exist in a wider Ã¢â¬Å"zone of negotiabilityÃ¢â¬ (Anderson, Ones, Sinangil Viswesvaran, 2002 P. 133-136). Though EV ensures better performance, the management must take proper initiatives in order to make it a sustainable trend. We should appreciate EV as a collective manifestation of good management practices, industrial democracy and employee unity. The management should introduce self management training modules for the employees. Training and education helps in developing the value system and perceptions of individuals. The voice of developed employees will be in sync with that of the management in issues related to organisational development and profitability, or at least they wont feel alienated and exploited during such discussions (Smither London, 2009 P. 377-379). Since 1980s, employee relationships have undergone a lot of change in the U.K. mostly there have been emphasis on non-union employee representation (NER) and partnership. These have also been developments whereby the management has to inform the employees in regular intervals matters pertaining to organizational performance as well as strategic planning (Gollan, 2005 P. 238-239). It is worth noting that high performance comes with high levels of commitment. The same concept also applies to employees. Highly motivated and committed employees tend to identify with the organisation and hence perform optimally. It goes beyond saying that enhanced commitment is a result of employee satisfaction. Thus, a goal oriented organisation should continually try to empower its employees through various ways patronising EV being one of them (Beer, 2009 P.276). Another study shows that unionised employees show lesser trends of attrition. EV imparts a sense of collective security to the employees and thus management faces lesser problems regarding their retention (Barrett Mayson, 2008 P. 468). Again, thinking more practically, we find that in general productivity and performance are not the primary interests of employee unions. They are more concerned about compensation and benefits, employees rights, etc. According to Kelley and Harrison, increased productivity is a by product of unions and is different from their central goals (Kaufman, Kleiner Industrial Relations Research Association, 1993 P. 191). Various works in the recent decades have suggested ways to reduce employee anxieties such as job security, which can be adopted by the management. Restrictions on downsizing the employee base may enhance employee loyalty which in turn will have positive effects on job satisfaction and performance (Cooke, 2003 P. 76). Apart from being provided with alternative arrangements such as flexible working hours, job sharing and telecommuting, employees should also form an integral part of the performance appraisal system. A successful performance appraisal system should be participative and transparent (Nelson, 2007 P. 173-174). Irrespective of the organisational size and the state of unionisation, employees tend to deliver their best when they have a proper knowledge about their duties and rights and also have an opportunity to address their views to the management. As management structures are becoming increasingly flatter, it is important for each employee to have a comprehensive knowledge as to how to be sel sufficient at work (Gennard Judge, 2005 P. 185). As a matter of fact, when management employee interrelationship operates at a high level thereby strengthening the process of communication, the organisation will be able to solve nearly all its internal issues without any third part involvement. This enhances the integrity of the organisation (Schafer Economic Policy Institute, 1996 P. 127). Communication can be successful only when EV is patronised. Communication is largely a managerial function and responsibility. The managers should ensure that information flows both in the upward as well as downward directions and also through collective channels. Staff communication policy should be formulated and improvised as per requirements (Brewster, Hegewisch, Price, Waterhouse Co. Cranfield School of Management, 1994 P. 163-165). Another way to enhance EV is through harmonisation whereby differences in status are reduced. This encourages employees to freely express their ideas (Marchington, Wilkinson, Sargeant CIPD, 2002 P. 187). This measure calls for the flattening of management structure and also requires counselling across hierarchies to make the change acceptable. As it is being greatly clear that successful EV is an outcome of well coordinated communication, it is important to minimise the common barriers to communication and to develop a general climate that advocates as well as facilitates communication across hierarchies (Roodman Roodman, 1973 P. 57). EV endows employees with the right to control their career. This is a basic human need which needs to be satisfied in order to ensure commitment to work. At the same time it also reduces the supervisory responsibilities of the management and allows them more time for strategising (Pendleton, 2001 P. 108-113). This is reflected in the words of the Production Director, Weaveco, Ã¢â¬Å"it probably started by preaching to our employees, then we started talking to them but then the next thing is to start listening, and I think the listening is more through the DITs where they get involved in solving problemsÃ¢â¬ (Stuart Martinez-Lucio, 2005 P. 33). Participation is further enhanced though employees representation in the Board of Directors. This consolidates the stand of the employees as an inseparable element in organisational success. Apart from this the corporate policy should support individual self determination, codetermination and collective bargaining for employees to voice their ideas and necessities. There should be a symbiotic association between the management and employees to work towards a common goal (Wilkinson, Gollan Marchington, 2010, P. 487 496). Employee participation in any organisational activity tends to increase with their personal involvement. With an increase in involvement the employees naturally perform optimally thereby proving that EV is of immense importance in enhancing organisational performance and productivity (Kirkman, Lowe Young, 1999 P. 42). According to a research by the U.S. General Accounting Office Employee Ownership, together with Employee Participation in organisational decision making, can improve the overall performance of the organisation (Harris, National Research Council (U.S.), Committee on Human Factors, National Research Council (U.S.) Panel on Organizational Linkages, 1994 P. 83). Thus it is justified that employees being key elements in the organisational processes should be taken into serious consideration from the perspective of management decision making for the betterment of organisational practices. This helps in widening the spectrum of decisional alternatives and facilitates the process through the collective approach. Management employee harmonisation also helps in bringing the two entities closer and the mutual understanding thus achieved, helps in identifying common goals. Negative Impact of Employee Voice Unabated EV, if not monitored carefully may lead to an upsurge of collective emotions and employees try to devise outrageous mechanisms to vent out the same. To avoid such eruptions, the management should by empathetic in listening to the employees on a regular basis and also allow room for collective bargaining in order to arrive at moderated conclusions wherever possible. Otherwise, EV may take to hostility against the organisation and disrupt its operations through non cooperative activities such as strikes, etc. Conclusion In the course of the report we have found that EV plays an important role in shaping the organisational processes and enhancing the overall efficiency, performance and productivity. It is a tool which can best be used by a participative management model wherein it is the aim of the management to empower the employees through providing certain degree of autonomy in terms of decision making. Thus EV also reduces the managements decision making burden. In flattened organisations it is highly necessary that individual employees have voice. This is necessary because it helps the employees to express their dissatisfactions too the management. Any corrective response by the management acts as a grievance management tool, increases employee job satisfaction, enhances their morale and commitment and thereby helps in enhancing organisational performance. Through the enhanced flow of information, administrative and process related activities become faster. It also enhances overall coordination among departments and across hierarchies. References Anderson, N., Ones, S. D., Sinangil, K. H. Viswesvaran, C. 2002. Handbook of Industrial, Work Organizational Psychology: Organizational Psychology. 2nd ed. SAGE. Armstrong, M. 2006. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 10th ed. Kogan Page Publishers. Barrett, R. Mayson, S. 2008. International Handbook of Entrepreneurship and HRM. Edward Elgar Publishing. Beer, M. 2009. High Commitment High Performance: How to Build a Resilient Organization for Sustained Advantage. John Wiley and Sons. Boxall, F. P., Boxall, P., Purcell, J. Wright, M. P. 2007. The Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management. Oxford University Press. Brewster, C., Hegewisch, A., Price, Waterhouse Co. Cranfield School of Management. 1994. Policy and Practice in European Human Resource Management: The Price Waterhouse Cranfield Survey. Routledge. Brown, M. Heywood, S. J. 2002. Paying for Performance: An International Comparison. M. E. Sharpe. CIPD. 2001. Management Choice and Employee Voice. CIPD Publishing. Cooke, N. W. 2003. Multinational Companies and Global Human Resource Strategies. Greenwood Publishing Group. Dundon, T. Rollinson, D. 2004. Employment Relations in Non Union Firms. Routledge. Gennard, J. Judge. G. 2005. Employee Relations. 4th ed. CIPD Publishing. Gollan, J. P. 2005. Voice and Non-Union Workplace. 27th vol. 3rd issue. Emerald Group Publishing. Greenberg, J. Edwards, S. M. 2009. Voice and Silence in Organizations. Emerald Group Publishing. Harris, H. D., National Research Council (U.S.), Committee on Human Factors, National Research Council (U.S.) Panel on Organizational Linkages. 1994. Organizational Linkages: Understanding the Productivity Paradox. National Academies Press. Hyman, J. Mason, B. 1995. Managing Employee Involving and Participation. SAGE. Kaufman,E. B., Kleiner,M. M. Industrial Relations Research Association. 1993. Employee Representation: Alternatives and Future Directions. Cornell University Press. Kirkman, L. B., Lowe, B. K. Young, P. D. 1999. High-performance Work Organizations: Definitions, Practices, and an Annotated Bibliography. Center for Creative Leadership. Lee, W. B. 1991. Should Employee Participation be Part of Privatization? World Bank Publications. Marchington, M., Wilkinson, A., Sargeant, M. CIPD. 2002. People Management and Development: Human Resource Management at Work. 2nd ed. CIPD Publishing. Nelson, B. 2007. The Management Bible. Wiley India. Pendleton, A. 2001. Employee Ownership, Participation and Governance: A Study of ESOPs in the UK. Routledge. Pfeffer, J. 1998. The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First. Harvard Business Press. Roodman, H. Roodman, Z. 1973. Management by Communication. Taylor Francis. Schafer, T. Economic Policy Institute. 1996. Reclaiming Prosperity: A Blueprint for Progressive Economic Reform. M. E. Sharpe. Smither, W. J. London, M. 2009. Performance Management: Putting Research into Practice. John Wiley and Sons. Stuart, M. Martinez-Lucio, M. 2005. Partnership and Modernisation in Employment Relations. Routledge. Wilkinson, A., Gollan, J. P. Marchington, M. 2010. The Oxford Handbook of Participation in Organizations. Oxford University Press. Bibliography Armstrong, M. Stephens, T. 2005. A Handbook of Employee Reward Management and Practice. Kogan Page Publishers. Beaumont, B. P., Hunter, C. L. CIPD. 2003. Information and Consultation: From Compliance to Performance. CIPD Publishing. Bennett, T. J. Kaufman, E. B. 2002. The Future of Private Sector Unionism in the United States. 7th ed. M. E. Sharpe. Gospel, H. Pendleton, A. 2006. Corporate Governance and Labour Management: An International Comparison. Oxford University Press. Marshall, F. R. Marshall, R. F. 2000. Back to Shared Prosperity: The Growing inequality of Wealth and Income in America. M. E. Sharpe. Nicotera, M. A. 1995. Conflict and Organizations: Communicative Processes. SUNY Press. Winstanley, D. Woodall, J. 2000. Ethical Issues in Contemporary Human Resource Management. Palgrave Macmillan. Wunnava, V. P. 2004. The Changing Role of Unions: New Forms of Representation. M. E. Sharpe.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Bitter Stereotypes From the writer: When I was in high school, I was very involved with Amnesty International. Ever since then, the concern about basic human rights has been a vital part of my outlook on life. I chose Elisabeth Rosenthal's article because I liked the challenge of analyzing the complicated and sensitive issue of human rights in China. The realization that most people couldn't care less about the topic pushed me. I hope that by choosing Rosenthal's article, I have made at least one person more aware of the need to protect human rights. From the teacher: The writer's sense of justice and humanity comes across clearly in this essay. This transitional studio assignment asked students to examine a mass media article for its hidden motives and subtle uses of rhetorical devices. Angie reaches beyond the assignment with her suggestion that the setting (a Western publication) may limit even the potential validity of such a story, due primarily to what constitutes proof in this setting, and that proof's disconnection from the reality of the issue. From the editors: What drew us to this piece was how passionately Haupt critiques the validity of a strictly Western explanation for the problem of suicide among women in rural China. She points out that such stories may best be told by those closest to the issue. We agree. The prevailing Western stereotype of Chinese society is that it is cold, harsh, and backward. Our whole image of China is tainted. We associate China with the ridiculousness of Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution, with the brutality of the Tiananmen Square massacre, with the horrors of human rights abuses in Tibet and in mainland China, with the fortune cookie, and with the phrase "Confucius says" (even though only a handful of us could explain who Confucius was and what he said). Therefore, it is not surprising that the media tends to over-simplify Chinese issues, so that they can fit with our (mis)understanding of Chinese society. I believe that Elisabeth Rosenthal's article, "Suicide Reveals Bitter Roots of China's Rural Life," (New York Times 24 January 1999: early ed. Sec. 1: 1+) fell into the stereotype trap. Rosenthal's article is about the unusually high rate of suicides among China's rural female population. The title promises to explain the phenomena: "Reveal Bitter Roots." And yet, only six short paragraphs (in a five-page story) address the possible causes (roots) of the problem. Bitter Stereotypes :: Essays Bitter Stereotypes From the writer: When I was in high school, I was very involved with Amnesty International. Ever since then, the concern about basic human rights has been a vital part of my outlook on life. I chose Elisabeth Rosenthal's article because I liked the challenge of analyzing the complicated and sensitive issue of human rights in China. The realization that most people couldn't care less about the topic pushed me. I hope that by choosing Rosenthal's article, I have made at least one person more aware of the need to protect human rights. From the teacher: The writer's sense of justice and humanity comes across clearly in this essay. This transitional studio assignment asked students to examine a mass media article for its hidden motives and subtle uses of rhetorical devices. Angie reaches beyond the assignment with her suggestion that the setting (a Western publication) may limit even the potential validity of such a story, due primarily to what constitutes proof in this setting, and that proof's disconnection from the reality of the issue. From the editors: What drew us to this piece was how passionately Haupt critiques the validity of a strictly Western explanation for the problem of suicide among women in rural China. She points out that such stories may best be told by those closest to the issue. We agree. The prevailing Western stereotype of Chinese society is that it is cold, harsh, and backward. Our whole image of China is tainted. We associate China with the ridiculousness of Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution, with the brutality of the Tiananmen Square massacre, with the horrors of human rights abuses in Tibet and in mainland China, with the fortune cookie, and with the phrase "Confucius says" (even though only a handful of us could explain who Confucius was and what he said). Therefore, it is not surprising that the media tends to over-simplify Chinese issues, so that they can fit with our (mis)understanding of Chinese society. I believe that Elisabeth Rosenthal's article, "Suicide Reveals Bitter Roots of China's Rural Life," (New York Times 24 January 1999: early ed. Sec. 1: 1+) fell into the stereotype trap. Rosenthal's article is about the unusually high rate of suicides among China's rural female population. The title promises to explain the phenomena: "Reveal Bitter Roots." And yet, only six short paragraphs (in a five-page story) address the possible causes (roots) of the problem.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
In order for any rocket to fly, it must obey some basic rules of physics. No rocket can escape the cardinal rule that the center of gravity must be in front of the center of pressure. Center of Gravity The Center of Gravity or Cg is the point that behaves as if all the mass was concentrated in that one spot. Simply put it is the point at which you could balance the rocket on your finger. The Cg is also the point around which the rocket rotates. This becomes very important for the rocket's stability as you will soon see. Center of Pressure The Center of Pressure or Cp is similar to the Cg. The Cp is the point at which the forces from the air pushing on the vechicle seem to be focused. What is a Cg or a Cp? Basic Rocket Why Does This Matter ? When a rocket is in flight, the force of the air pushing on it keeps the Cp behind the Cg. This is important because the rocket is pushed by the force of the exhaust coming out the back. If the Cp was in front of the Cg, the rocket would want to spin around (so that its back was pointing forwards).. However, because the exhaust is always pushing the rocket forward, it spins around again and again... and you get the picture from there. Fins So now that you know all about Cgs and Cps, it should make perfect sense what fins are for. Still a little confused? The fins are extra surface area near the back of the rocket. This brings the Cp further back on the rocket without significantly moving the Cg.. Calculating Cp Calculating a Cp is rather involved. The easiest way to do it is by using Barrowman's Equations, although these are still fairly complicated. I was going to explain them, but I found a site that does a better job than I could ever do. The UAF Student Rocket Project builds and flies sounding rockets with help from Wollops Flight Facilty. Our latest mission, SRP4, is a student designed and built payload. It will be carrying a science instrument designed by students and professors at Toyama Prefectual University in Japan. Our goal is to measure the D-region of the ionosphere. SRP4 will fly atop an Orion sounding rocket motor that will be supplied by NASA's Wollops Flight Facility. We expect to launch from Poker Flat Research Range in March of 2002.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The story of Antigone deals with AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s brother whoÃ¢â¬â¢s body has been left unburied because of crimes against the state. The sight of her brother being unburied drives Antigone to take action against the state and bury her brother regardless of the consequences. The concept of the Greek afterlife was far more important and sacred than living life itself. Everything they did while they were alive was to please the many gods they worshipped. They built temples for their Gods, made statues to symbolize their Gods, and had a different God to explain things that we now say are an act of mother nature. Antigone percieved her actions to be courageous and valid, and Kreone, the King, percieved them as blasphemous. The entire story focuses on deciding whoÃ¢â¬â¢s right. The question arises, "Did Antigone take proper action?" Was it right to go against her Uncle KreonÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes and go ahead and bury her brother that was to be left out for the vultures? Would it have been better just to leave the situation how it was? The fact is, Antigone did the right thing. She was acting out of divine influence so to speak. Since divinity and humanity are shown to be colliding forces where divinity out weighs humanity in ancient Greece. Antigone was justified in her actions. Antigone was following divine laws, or walking with divine shoes, while Kreone followed the laws of the state. Her brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s afterlife was so important to Antigone that she was willing to give up anything to ensure her b...
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The purpose for this paper is to provide historical background on Paul and grace. I will also provide how it is applied to modern times, how it has changed my life as well as my learning goals from this paper on Paul and grace. Paul embraced GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace after his conversion and call and informed others about it. He expresses consistently how grace is the solitary reason that salvation is attained. Researches of articles of the subject as well as PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s epistles provide evidence of this. According to Paul, Ã¢â¬Å"by grace we are saved,Ã¢â¬ (Ephesians 2:8). Historical Information About Paul on Grace: There is no doubt that Paul was chosen by God to be the vessel to communicate His good news to others. Cornelius R. Stam a writer for www.bereanbiblesociety.org points out that Paul has more to say about grace than any other writers of the Bible. Stam says, Ã¢â¬Å"The Hebrew equivalent of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s word for grace is found only 68 times in the whole Old Testament (which is nearly twelve times the size of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s epistles) and then not always relating to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace, and never to the dispensation of Grace.Ã¢â¬ In the four Gospels (nearly twice the size of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s epistles) the word grace (Gr. charis) with its derivatives appears in the original only 13 times. Furthermore, in PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s epistles the word grace is nearly always used in association with Ã¢â¬Å"the dispensation of the grace of God.Ã¢â¬ Paul wrote greatly concerning grace. Each epistle signed by Paul opens with an assertion of grace and peace Ã¢â¬Å "from God our Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ.Ã¢â¬ PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s epistles reveal that we are under grace rather than the law. In them we discover that we are Ã¢â¬Å"justified freely by [GodÃ¢â¬â¢s] graceÃ¢â¬ (Rom. 3:24). He also informs us that Ã¢â¬Å"where sin abounded grace did much more aboundÃ¢â¬ (Rom. 5:20). Paul asserts that Ã¢â¬Å"God is able to make all grace aboundÃ¢â¬ to us in order for us to Ã¢â¬Å"abound to every good workÃ¢â¬ (II Cor. 9:8). Ã¢â¬Å"GraceÃ¢â¬ is used in the book of Acts 4 times before the raising up of Paul and 12 times afterwards. However, before his raising, the term was not used toward the dispensation of grace or toward salvation by grace. After his conversion is when the word is used often and toward the dispensation of grace and salvation by grace. According to www.gracepoints.com, Ã¢â¬Å"Paul was the first to refer by divine inspiration to Ã¢â¬Å"the dispensation of the grace of God, which is given me to you-wardÃ¢â¬ (Eph. 3:2), and to Ã¢â¬Å"the ministry which I have received of the Lord Jesus to testify the gospel of the grace of GodÃ¢â¬ (Acts 20:24).Ã¢â¬ Before Paul, no one had ever mentioned the dispensation or the gospel of the grace of God. Above all, Paul revealed the most important doctrine that concerns our salvation. And that is that Ã¢â¬Å"By grace we are savedÃ¢â¬ (Eph. 2:8). Ernest L. Martin, Ph.D., asserts in an article that PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of grace can be found on II Timothy 2:15 which says, Ã¢â¬Å"Study to show thyself approved unto God, a workman that neededth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.Ã¢â¬ In other words, we are to divide the Gospel rightly so that there is no confusion among those we teach. Martin, expresses that Ã¢â¬Å"Paul was speaking of the fact that only a remnant of Israelites were then accepting Christ in the proper manner and he said this remnant was by the Ã¢â¬Å"election of graceÃ¢â¬ . Martin also asserts that from Paul he understood that salvation requires no works of a man. This seems strange at first, but it is until one reads II Timothy 1:9 that it makes sense. II Timothy 1:9 Ã¢â¬Å"Who [God] hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not ac cording to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ Paul is emphatic in stating that his ministry is a product of grace; he explains that his ministry is Ã¢â¬Ëaccording to the gift of grace which given to me according to the working of His powerÃ¢â¬ Eph 3:7. The notion that PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s ministry is due to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace is confirmed by his saying, Ã¢â¬ËBut I labored more than them all, and yet not I, but the grace of God which was with meÃ¢â¬ 1 Cor 15:9-10,Ã¢â¬ www.embracehisgrace.com . In I Cor. 15:10 Paul says, Ã¢â¬Å"by the grace of God I am what I am. As stated before, Paul had loads to say on the subject of grace. Paul acknowledged how important grace was especially concerning his salvation. He wished grace upon the recipients of his letters at the start of his epistles as a means of letting them know he was wishing or praying good health upon them (Rediscovering Paul An Introduction to His World, Letters and Theology pg. 58)All of his epistles are proof of that. They not only affected his time as they affect contemporary life as well. Application to Contemporary Life: For Christians, PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s words on grace are applied in contemporary life as a reminder of how we are saved and just how good God is. The apostle Paul insists that salvation is given to us only by grace. For us to have perfect righteousness by our good works is impossible. It is ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s good works that count. According to www.askelm.com, Ã¢â¬Å"God gives us salvation by grace as a gift.Ã¢â¬ In his letter to Ephesus, Paul said, Ã¢â¬Å"For by grace are you saved through faith; and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God: not of works lest any man should boast,Ã¢â¬ (Ephesians 2:8). The website also explains how grace and works are completely opposites. Ã¢â¬Å"Rewards come by the practice of works, but mercy comes by the application of grace.Ã¢â¬ Grace is a wholesome gift that is freely given. God gives it to us constantly, especially when we deserve the total opposite. Conversely, the law is always associated with works and deeds. The breaking of law results in wages being paidÃ¢â¬âthe wages of death (Romans 6:32). As Paul said, Ã¢â¬Å"the law entered, that the offence [sin] might abound, but where sin abounded, grace did much more aboundÃ¢â¬ (Romans 5:20). No matter how much believers mess up, GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace frees them from its severe penalties. No matter the good deed people try to do to make things better, it is ultimately His grace that overrides it all. Knowing this relieves burdens on the numerous Christians that consistently do wrong. It is knowing how gracious God is that informs them that everything will be okay as He is in control. Christ places salvation at our reach. It is up to us to walk by faith and grab it. Christ did what no man can do and that is maintain a perfect record of righteousness. Therefo re, the Father put Christ as the substitute to account for everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s righteousness. He paid the debt of all to God which is why all inherit grace from Him. Once again, to Paul, salvation is exclusively from grace. Ã¢â¬Å"But of him are you in Christ Jesus, who of God is made UNTO US wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption,Ã¢â¬ (I Cor. 1:30) Through the acceptance of Christ and being in Him, God has made us to be in perfect wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption. He wiped the slate clean that all generations from back then to contemporary times may receive the kingdom of Heaven. According to searchingforgrace.com, Paul went to extreme measures to highlight just how significant and devastating this false teaching was, going so far as to say that it was actually disabling the grace empowered life within them. Ã¢â¬Å"It is for freedom that Christ has set us free. Stand firm, then, and do not let yourselves be burdened again by a yoke of slavery,Ã¢â¬ (Galatians 5:1-2). This is a reminder as those of today read the Bible of how gracious God is. Specific behaviors, values, or preferences your research has brought you personally: Researching this topic has been a constant reminder of just how amazing God is. Without Him there is no me. Just because we are saved by His grace is no excuse to sin it up just for the fun it. Appreciating GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace is the best thing I can do along with do what is right to the best of my ability. There is always room to improve in my life but GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace lets me know that He still loves me no matter what. With Him on my side through His grace I know that I can overcome it all. Paul showed how much he valued and appreciated grace as he constantly talked about it and spread the Word to others. God was gracious enough to change PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s life for the better and allow him to inform others of the Gospel. He has certainly done the same for me. This is why I do my best to share the Gospel with others as much as I can. Paul reminds me that by His grace I am saved! Personal Learning Goals from Research: My personal goals from this research paper would be to keep the faith and always remember how gracious God is. I must embrace what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned more. In all that I do I must remember to keep Him first above anyone else. Finally, I must continue to inform others of the Gospel and His grace. Conclusion: In closing, Paul made it clear how valuable GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace is. He shared the news with everyone he could. His epistles have served as a constant reminder of this. Knowing of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace and believing in it has changed my life! I can now share the news with others. May it continue to bless others as it has blessed me.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Established in 1971, VIP Industries Limited is the flagship company of the 200 million dollar DG Piramal Group. Its longstanding familiar Indian brand VIP is the largest luggage brand in Asia and the second largest producer of moulded luggage in the world after Samsonite. The first VIP suitcase was rolled out in 1971, and since then over 60 million pieces of VIP luggage have been sold around the world. In the organized Indian luggage market, VIP leads with a 60% market share, followed by Samsonite at 40%. In the international market Samsonite leads with 20% market share where as VIP follows at 6% with operations spread across 5 continents and in 27 countries. VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s product range includes a variety of hard and soft luggage Ã¢â¬â strolleys, suitcases, duffle bags, overnight travel solutions, executive cases, backpacks, and even school bags. Apart from the mother VIP brand, the company also owns other reputed brands such as Alfa, Footloose, Elanza, Buddy, etc. It also markets under license Delsey products in India. Moreover, it has acquitted the UK-based Carlton brand in a bid to penetrate the European market. VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s products reach over 8000 retail outlets across the country and over 1300 outlets across 27 countries globally. Ever since its launch, VIP has been an epic brand synonymous with luggage in India. Its products priced for masses, enjoyed a near monopoly till the midÃ¢â¬â¢90s, and its sentimental, powerful, and long-playing advertising campaign Ã¢â¬ËKal bhi, aaj bhi, kal bhiÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬â¢ remained etched in public memory for years to come. However, the scenario started changing with the international leader SamsoniteÃ¢â¬â¢s entry into the India market in 1997. After a few initial setbacks, Samsonite started cracking the Indian market and posing a challenge for VIP. Along with tha t, a gabble of unorganized players also started confronting VIP at the lower end. This propelled VIP to take stock of the situation and realign its strategies with the changing market situation. VIP discovered that while competition was heating up, the Indian luggage industry had also been growing owing to a number of favorable factors. Most importantly, steady economic growth had ed to an increase in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s disposable incomes, thereby propelling the travel sector, which in turn had boosted the luggage industry. Frequent travel for business was also on the rise with organizations going global. This was also redefining peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s need for luggage. Convenience and variety in luggage based on specific travel occasions had started assuming prime importance. People no longer looked at suitcases as just a means of safeguarding and securing their belongings , but also cared for aesthetics, which increased the importance of soft luggage. Design, style, and attractive colors also guided peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s purchase decisions. Hence, luggage had transformed from being merely a functional product to a fashion or lifestyle statement. And people were no longer using the same suitcase for all travel requirements, but purchase had become more need-based with consumers buying luggage according to a particular type of holiday, trek excursion or business travel. Further, luggage in the premium segment had been growing the most. In the wake of these changes, the age-old leader in luggage segment, VIP realized that youngsters perceived VIP as a brand belonging to parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ and grandparentsÃ¢â¬â¢ era. In order to be in sync with the times, VIP decided to change this perception and reposition itself as a contemporary lifestyle brand, which catered to people who traveled widely and followed a particular lifestyle. On the product front, it rehashed its soft luggage portfolio since that was the category driving sales. Besides it also allowed the company to play around with styles, which were becoming a major criterion in luggage selection. In addition, VIP also started adding more variety, designs and colors to its traditional category of hard luggage. However, it reserved the hard luggage segment primarily for exports since VIP and Samsonite were the only two hard luggage brands in the world. In order to address varied traveler segments, VIP designed products for all travel needs, durations, and prices, be it a long haul journey, short weekend or daily travel, leisurely holiday or business travel. Its mother brand VIP was developed as a slick lifestyle brand that focused on comfort nd convenience for long-duration travels. Alfa provided reliable, good quality luggage for price-conscious consumers who otherwise had to make do with low-quality local luggage. Footloose focused on the daily or longer duration travel needs of the youth, while Buddy was a school bag brand focusing on providing fun, innovative and quality products in a segment that was dominated by cheap, local products. In order to reinstate its lifestyle p roposition, it also launched a collection for women called Aura and a business collection called Matrix in NovÃ¢â¬â¢05. At the premium designer end, it offered ranges like Elanza and also marketed high-priced products costing Rs. 12,000 under its Delsey range. Thus with its extensive product portfolio with over 250 products matching different prices, VIP covered the entire luggage segment and has been constantly innovating keeping in mind travelersÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements. Following on VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s footsteps, Samsonite, which initially offered only high-end collections, also launched the American Tourister range for the mid-price segment in the range of Rs. 800 Ã¢â¬â Rs. 2,000 in 2002. VIP also aggressively promoted its prominent ranges to establish its new image. For example, the Alfa campaign conveyed both the importance of a better quality luggage as well as the affordable price points of Alfa. However, maximum promotional attention was showered on to the power brand VIP to position it as an all-encompassing, contemporary lifestyle travel companion. In 2002, its advertising campaign Ã¢â¬ËLooking at me? Ã¢â¬â¢ introduced some new lifestyle products as travel companions. The campaign informed consumers of the contemporized brandÃ¢â¬â¢s styles and colors, features, prices, VIP lounges where the brand was available etc. Then in 2003, VIP felt it needed to recreate the magic of its yesteryears with a more encompassing campaign that would reposition itself as a fresh, young, smart, and exciting brand. Thus, VIP launched a television ad campaign entitled Ã¢â¬Ëbye-byeÃ¢â¬â¢ emphasizing a major shift in its marketing communication strategy. The campaign, designed by Lowe, began by airing a montage film that showed people bidding bye-bye to their kith and kin at the start of their journeys Ã¢â¬â an elderly lady waving to a car making its way out of the gate; a doorman at a hotel waving to departing guest; a mother idding goodbye to her children; etc. A peppy Ã¢â¬Ëbye-bye, goodbyeÃ¢â¬â¢ track played in the background and the film ended with the tagline, Ã¢â¬ËHappy journeys began with VIP. Ã¢â¬â¢ Other ads in the campaign presented more Ã¢â¬Ëbye-byeÃ¢â¬â¢ situations Ã¢â¬â people bidding bye-bye to Monday mornings, women bidding bye-bye to men and coolies since new VIP bags were light, etc. Given VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s heritage and iconic status, the underlying objective of the new campaign was to get VIP to own the travel space, rather than just the luggage space that it occupied earlier. The company hoped that this would increase consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement with VIP during their travel planning process, rather than the brand featuring only at the far end of the process. The time of departure was chosen for portrayal in the ads since the agency felt that this was the time that caught a range of emotions Ã¢â¬â people bidding farewell to their dear ones, looking forward to the journey and to returning home, and being most closely involved with luggage. By depicting the happiness associated with the start of the journey; and through more vibrant, smart and youthful imagery such as a contemporary metro train in place of a workmanlike diesel train used in the Ã¢â¬ËKal bhiEÃ¢â¬â¢ campaign, or the bubbly bye-bye tune and situations; VIP tried to make itself relevant to a new generation of consumers, without alienating its traditional base of loyalists. VIP also has plans for a series of communications to the Ã¢â¬Ëbye-byeÃ¢â¬â¢ campaign that will portray its contemporary product range and strengthen its new stance as a travel companion. The Ã¢â¬Ëbye-byeÃ¢â¬â¢ television campaign was supported by an outdoor campaign as well, but the company refrained from any sales promotion activities in order to reinforce the new exclusive positioning. Below-the-line activities were only used to complement above-the-line communication in supporting new launches, addressing niche audiences or audiences difficult to reach by mass media, motivating trade force etc. For example, VIP ran an exclusive Ã¢â¬ËMystery ShopperÃ¢â¬â¢ program, which encouraged the shop salesmen to better demonstrate its product features. It also designed interactive games to convey the superior features of its Alfa brand. Media relation activities were also conducted, albeit in a limited manner, to break the news of product launches or new stores. On the other hand, competitor SamsoniteÃ¢â¬â¢s campaigns are carried out by its global agency and it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any India-specific campaigns, since it mostly caters to business travelers whose needs are the same the world over. For instance, in one print ad, Richard Bronson of Virgin Airlines testifies, Ã¢â¬Å"To me, business isnÃ¢â¬â¢t about wearing suits or pleasing stockholders. It is about being true to yourself, your idea and focusing on the essentials. Further, in order to retain its premium image, Samsonite too does not indulge in any sales promotion activities. Its distribution strategy is also selective with the company retailing only out of high-profile stores such as ShoppersÃ¢â¬â¢ Stop, LifeStyle and Witco. VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution strategy also complements with its varied product range and new positioning strategy with the right products available at relevant outlets throughout the country. VIP suitcases are made available at convenient retail locations with a self-select approach and appropriate display showcasing the large range of VIP products in an in-store ambience set to attract. The company also has forayed into retailing by opening exclusive stores that showcase all its product ranges. It has opened stores called Ã¢â¬ËVIP Lounges,Ã¢â¬â¢ which compete with the franchised Ã¢â¬ËSamsonite Travel World. Ã¢â¬â¢ Its ranges with products below Rs. 1,500 are also distributed through hypermarkets and malls. It also has an on-line store although online sales havenÃ¢â¬â¢t really picked up in India. Also, VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution in the European market is primarily done for its premium Delsey and Carlton brands. The brandÃ¢â¬â¢s repositioning efforts have paid off by helping it retain its leadership position. Even today, the VIP brand enjoys 97% unaided brand awareness, one of the highest in the world and has over 65 million customers. Questions: 1. Can you identify VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s prime source of competitive advantage from this case? If yes, what do you think it is? 2. What strategy of segmenting and targeting the market has VIP followed? What segment(s) is the mother brand targeting? In what alternative ways can luggage market be segmented? 3. Identify the points of differentiation of the VIP brand from its prime competitor Samsonite. How sustainable do you think the differentiation is? . How was VIP positioned earlier in the minds of consumers? Why did it decide to reposition its image? Briefly state what steps it took to reposition itself and whether the attempt was successful. 5. What was the objective of VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s new communication strategy? Did the product, price and distribution changes complement this strategy? How cohesive do you think VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s new marketing mix is? 6. What was the difference between the Ã¢â¬Ëlooking at me? Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëbye-byeÃ¢â¬â¢ campaigns? What objectives did they both serve? How did they complement VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s product-related decisions? . Comment on VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution strategy. What message does it convey? Visit two-three outlets or exclusive stores selling VIP brands. Do you think they convey a message similar to the communication message delivered by the brand? Preethi Meets Venkat Through Shaadi. Com Ã¢â¬Å"I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to fall into the traps of a typical Indian arranged marriage; I believe it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give you the required time and opportunity to know and understand your would-be partner, especially with families breathing down your necks while calling for a decision,Ã¢â¬ said Preethi. And I always wanted to choose my partner myself,Ã¢â¬ concurred Venkat, adding, Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why Shaadi. Com worked for both of us. Ã¢â¬ Preethi and Venkat are among the 48% of Internet users who surf matrimonial sites for alliances. While traditionally the activity of matchmaking was left to the elderly aunts of the family, marriage bureaus, and newspaper matrimonials, with the advent of Internet and a change in youngstersÃ¢â¬â¢ preference s, online alliance search has taken off with a frenzy, especially with 60% of the online population in India being below the age of 25. With 12 million urban Indians undertaking online matchmaking, it is the 13th most popular online activity among Indian surfers. Although online dating is ahead of matrimonial searches as the 10th most popular online activity, it does not enjoy the high user loyalty and brand premium of matrimonial websites. This is because Indian culture has yet not fully accepted the concept of dating before marriage and people do not register on a dating site for finding a life partner. There is also a huge overlap between the two activities suggesting that people who date are also looking for a mate. Owing to a close-knit social structure of India, families and friends still have an important role to play in online matchmaking. Often parents are seen posting their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s profiles, and while the final choice may be the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s, parents extensively carry out activities like gathering information, filtering profiles, matching horoscopes, etc. Experiences of friends also guide in the decision-making. Online advertising as well as conventional television and print advertising are popular media choices for most portals. Advertising seems to be harping on factors like wide profile choices, relevant matches, and a joint selection process that satisfies the entire family (Figures 3. 23a-d). Smaller portals such as Simplymarry. com have also adopted viral tactics such as creating a website, rather a catchy microsite, for Mom-in-Law Day (Figure 3. 23e) on October 28 to promote its portal. The site has a collection of videos of interviews of people expressing their feelings and opinions about their mothers-in-law, text messages, tips, and a link to Simplymarry. com. One such communication triggered the dormant desire of finding a life partner for Venkat. While watching the film Metro, Venkat was exposed to Shaadi. com. The movie depicted Konkana Sen Sharma and Irrfan Khan getting older and feeling the need to find a life partner, and then turning to Shaadi. com for help. Sen Sharma was shown logging on to the website, and there were mentions of Shaadi. com in her conversations with Khan and even comical scenes in which the protagonists viewed some funny profiles on the site and enjoyed a good laugh. The movie propelled Venkat into online matchmaking. He believed that the biggest advantage of online matrimonial sites was their massive database, which offered people a wide choice of matches across both objective and subjective evaluation criteria such as education and career, religion, family background, location, personal preferences, personality, etc. He zeroed in on Shaadi. com after a little search, most importantly because the name had created a distinct impression in his mind through the movie. One of prospects he mailed was Preethi; the two of them hit it off and decided to marry. Preethi had chosen Shaadi. com as she was particularly impressed with its strict profile screening system, and the simplified search technology that increased the relevance of the matches. She also appreciated the portalÃ¢â¬â¢s attention to details through features like password-protected photographs that allowed members to maintain secrecy. Their choice was much like the rest of the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢; Shaadi. com and Bharatmatrimony. com were the two biggest websites in the online matrimonial space, each with 33% user preference. Another study by JuxtConsult pegged the websitesÃ¢â¬â¢ shares at 28% and 29% respectively as on April 2007. A study by AdMomentux measuring Ã¢â¬Ëaudience mindshareÃ¢â¬â¢ for television commercials, based on parameters like top-of-the-mind recall; appeal, likeability, relevance and comprehensibility of the ad; brand differentiation and preference created by the ad; etc. also showed similar results. Bharatmatrimony. comÃ¢â¬â¢s television commercial depicting how a modern boy and girl followed traditional rituals when it came to marriage, was the most effective, with 43. 8% mindshare. The television commercial of Shaadi. com showing the photographs of its various members received 36. 1% audience mindshare. JeevansathiÃ¢â¬â¢s commercial came in third with 18. 4% audience mindshare. Yet another study marked Shaadi. com as the leader with 987,000 unique visitors in JulyÃ¢â¬â¢07. Convinced of Shaadi. comÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness after a month-long free registration, Preethi and Venkat had signed up a 6-month premium membership. When they found each other and finally decided to marry in a year, they posted their success story like many others (Figure 3. 4) who had also found the right partners through Shaadi. com. Questions: 1. Based on the case, identify the various cultural and social factors that influence the decision of match-making through online matrimonial portals. 2. What motivated Venkat to go for online matchmaking? Identify the cues that triggered him into action. Could there be any deep-rooted motives behind the apparent one? 3. What beliefs did Venkat a nd Preethi hold regarding online matrimonial portals? What was their attitude towards Shaadi. com? Why? 4. What communication factors seem to be reinforcing purchase decision? Do you think consumers should experience cognitive dissonance after subscribing to Shaadi. com? Visit Shaadi. comÃ¢â¬â¢s website and identify ways in which it may trying to alleviate any possibility of cognitive dissonance. 5. Why does most communication for online matrimonial portals harp on joint family decision-making? Do you see any attitude change strategies adopted by any of the websites in their communication? Explain. 6. Map the five-stage buying decision process for Preethi and Venkat identifying the internal and external influences that could have shaped their decision on choosing Shaadi. com.